Evenki and English/Contrastive Grammar

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Differences

Not: We were unable to find Cyrillic Evenki sentences, so we took examples in the latin alphabet and transliterated them. However, this combined with the previously mentioned orthography error with the Evenki transducer may cause errors.

Comparative Particles

There are no comparative particles at all in Evenki.

Мурин орон-дук хегды-тмер.

horse reindeer-abl big-cmpr

A horse is bigger than a reindeer

  • (evn) Мурин → (eng) horse
    (evn) Мурин<n><sg><nom> → (eng) horse<n><sg><nom>
  • (evn) орондук → (eng) reindeer
    (evn) орондук<n><sg><abl> → (eng) reindeer<n><sg><abl>
  • (evn) хегдытмер → (eng) big
    (evn) хегдытмер<adj><sg><comp> → (eng) big<adj><sg><comp>


put all the words in each sentence in a single transferTest and a single transferMorphTest -JNW

Word order

Word order in Evenki is Subject-Complement-Verb, unlike English where the word order is Subject-Verb-Complement.

An example of this is

Тадук нунгартын аичимни ча-тын

then they doctor-pl become-pst-3pl

Then they became doctors.

  • (evn) Тадук → (eng) then
    (evn) Тадук<adv> → (eng) then<adv>
  • (evn) нунгартын → (eng) they
    (evn) нунгартын<n><pl><nom> → (eng) they<n><pl><nom>
  • (evn) аичимни → (eng) doctor
    (evn) аичимни<n><pl><acc> → (eng) doctor<n><pl><acc>
  • (evn) чатын → (eng) become
    (evn) чатын<v><pst><pl><3> → (eng) become<v><pst><pl><3>

Necessity of to be verbs

Unlike in english, even can easily remove the verb to be.

Тар орон ньами (bi-si-n).

that reindeer female (be-prs-3sg)

'That reindeer is a doe

  • (evn) Тар → (eng) that
    (evn) Тар<adj><sg><nom> → (eng) that<adj><sg><nom>
  • (evn) орон → (eng) reindeer
    (evn) орон<n><sg><nom> → (eng) reindeer<n><sg><nom>
  • (evn) ньами → (eng) female
    (evn) ньами<adj><sg><nom> → (eng) female<adj><sg><nom>

Case system

All evenki nouns operate under a case system, unlike english nouns. Compare the word for reindeer in the two sentences:

Мурин орон-дук хегды-тмер.

horse reindeer-abl big-cmpr

A horse is bigger than a reindeer

Тар орон ньами (bi-si-n).

that reindeer female (be-prs-3sg)

'That reindeer is a doe

  • (evn) Мурин → (eng) horse
    (evn) Мурин<n><sg><nom> → (eng) horse<n><sg><nom>
  • (evn) орондук → (eng) reindeer
    (evn) орондук<n><sg><abl> → (eng) reindeer<n><sg><abl>
  • (evn) хегдытмер → (eng) big
    (evn) хегдытмер<adj><sg><comp> → (eng) big<adj><sg><comp>


  • (evn) Тар → (eng) that
    (evn) Тар<adj><sg><nom> → (eng) that<adj><sg><nom>
  • (evn) орон → (eng) reindeer
    (evn) орон<n><sg><nom> → (eng) reindeer<n><sg><nom>
  • (evn) ньами → (eng) female
    (evn) ньами<adj><sg><nom> → (eng) female<adj><sg><nom>

Negation

Evenki, when translating a list of things that are not the case, does not negate the verb, instead simply opting for a negative particle.


Би-де нунган-да е-че-вун еме-ре.

I-clt he-clt neg.aux-pst-lpl.exe come-part

'Neither I nor he came.


  • (evn) Биде → (eng) I
    (evn) Биде<n><sg><nom><clt> → (eng) I<n><sg><nom><clt>
  • (evn) нунганда → (eng) he
    (evn) нунганда<n><sg><nom><clt> → (eng) he<n><sg><nom><clt>
  • (evn) ечевун → (eng) negation
    (evn) ечевун<neg><aux><pst><lpl> → (eng) negation<neg><aux><pst><lpl>
  • (evn) емере → (eng) come
    (evn) емере<v><part> → (eng) come<v><part>