Difference between revisions of ""9 Ways to Reduce Cognitive Load in Multimedia Learning" (Mayer & Moreno, 2003)"

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{{hidden|1. Present diagrams with narration rather than with text.|Students show better comprehension of concepts presented as diagrams/animations paired with spoken explanation.  Presenting both a graph and written text overloads the visual learning system while failing to employ the auditory one.  A graph presented with a verbal explanations employs both the visual and auditory systems, resulting in more effective transmission of information.}}
  
'''Main Tips/Methods to Incorporate in the Economics Classroom:'''
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{{hidden|2. Present multimedia explanations in paced segments.|Students show better comprehension of multimedia explanations when they are presented in paced, student-controlled segments rather than as continuous presentations. The pause allows students to solidify understanding of one concept before being presented with another.  Ask students if they are ready to continue lecture once a unit is complete, or offer a 'question session' after each main concept is presented in lecture.}}
  
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{{hidden|3. Provide students with background information before class.|By pre-training students, they waste less time attempting to understand logistical aspects of lecture and rather focus on the abstract concepts and ideas.  Providing all students with a vocabulary sheet via email the night before lecture would be a great example of incorporating this.  This way students enter lecture and are not distracted by attempts to understand economic jargon.}}
  
{{hidden|1. Students show better comprehension of concepts presented as diagrams when they are presented with narration rather than text|
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{{hidden|4. Eliminate extraneous information, sounds, and images.|It is believed that unnecessary factors 'take up' cognitive processing away from necessary ones. The idea here is that students will be confused by the abundance of information and the need to sift through it to understand which concepts are relevantIncorporating this idea in the economics classroom means prudence when creating PowerPoint slidesOne must must be careful to only include relevant information and not be swayed by the novelty of including elaborate explanations or unnecessary tangents.}}
Students show better comprehension of concepts presented as diagrams/animations when they are presented with narration rather than text. This means when presenting graphs, like a demand curve, it is more effective to present the graph and give an explanation of it rather than present the graph with a written explanationPresenting both a graph and written text overloads the visual learning system while failing to employ the auditory oneA graph presented with a verbal explanations employs both the visual and auditory systems, resulting in more effective transmission of information.}}
 
  
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{{hidden|5. Highlight key information.|For presentations that must include detailed information, students show better understanding when educators signal which information is important.  An easy way to incorporate this concept would be providing students with a small outline listing the main objectives of lecture.  The use of bolding, underlining, and colors to indicate importance is another possible technique.}}
  
{{hidden|2. Students show better comprehension of multimedia explanations when it is presented in paced segments|Students show better comprehension of multimedia explanations when it is presented in paced, student-controlled segments rather than a continuous presentation. This way, the student can make sure they understand one concept before being presented with another, presumably more complex one.  Since the comprehension of abstract concepts builds on basic ones, students must have a strong base in order to properly comprehend higher ones.  Asking students if they are ready to continue lecture once a unit is complete would be an example of this. Another example would be having a 'question session' after each main concept presented in lecture--this would provide student feedback and clarify any doubts they have.}}
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{{hidden|6. Place image-relevant text near the corresponding image.|The assumption here is that students spend less time attempting to attach the image and the text and therefore have more cognitive capacity left over to understand more abstract concepts.}}
 
 
  
{{hidden|3. Students show better understanding of a multimedia explanation when they are given background information prior to the lesson|By pre-training students, they waste less time attempting to understand logistical aspects of lecture and rather focus on the abstract concepts and ideas.  Providing all students with a vocabulary sheet via email the night before lecture would be a great example of incorporating thisThis way students enter lecture and are not distracted by attempts to understand economic jargon.}}  
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{{hidden|7. Present multimedia and narration simultaneously.|When presented with mixtures of narration and multimedia (i.e. a verbal explanation and an animation) students show better understanding if both forms are presented simultaneously rather than successively.  For example, instead of lecturing on the income effect and ''then'' showing an animation that also explains it, the explanation and the animation should be presented in a sequential, simultaneous mannerIt is believed that by harnessing both the auditory and visual systems and providing complementary information through each system, the student will not suffer from cognitive overload and will therefore better comprehend the concept being taught.}}
  
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{{hidden|8. Avoid on-screen text that duplicates your lecture.|PowerPoint presentations should be relevant to lecture but not be a word-by-word repetition.  For example, do not provide a slide with written text that duplicates your spoken explanation of diminishing marginal utility.  Presenting the exact same information via the auditory and visual systems may result in cognitive overload.}} 
  
{{hidden|4. Students show better understanding of multimedia explanations when they lack extraneous information, sounds, and images.|It is believed that unnecessary factors 'take up' cognitive processing away from necessary ones.  The idea here is that students will be confused by the abundance of information and the need to sift through it to understand which concepts are relevant.  Incorporating this idea in the economics classroom means prudence when creating powerpoint slides.  One must must be careful to only include relevant information and not be swayed by the novelty of including elaborate explanations or unnecessary tangents.}} 
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Learn more by reading Mayer and Moreno's paper.
  
 
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Richard E. Mayer and Roxana Moreno, "Nine Ways to Reduce Cognitive Load in Multimedia Learning," EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGIST, 38(1), 43–52
{{hidden|5. In multimedia presentations students show better understanding when pertinent information is bolded on underlined|For presentations that one cannot exclude extraneous information from, students show better understanding when educators signal which information is important (i.e. bolding important terms or underlining them).  An easy way to incorporate this concept would be providing students with a small outline which listed the main objectives of lecture. The use of bolding, underlining and the use of colors to indicate importance is another possible technique.}}
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Copyright © 2003, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
 
 
 
 
{{hidden|6. Whenever image-relevant text is used, student understanding is better when it is placed near the image it corresponds to|The assumption here is that students spend less time attempting to attach the image and the text and therefore have more cognitive capacity left over to understand more abstract concepts.}}
 
 
 
 
 
{{hidden|7. Comprehension is negatively affected when on-screen text mirrors lecture|For example, an explanation of diminishing marginal utility is given by a professor, but also concurrently presented in text on a powerpoint slide.  It is believed that presenting the exact same information via the auditory and visual system results in cognitive overload.  In order to avoid this, powerpoint presentations should be relevant to lecture but not be a word-by-word repetition.}} 
 
 
 
 
 
{{hidden|8. Students show better understanding if both multimedia and narration are presented simultaneously|When presented with mixtures of narration and multimedia (i.e. a verbal explanation and an animation) students show better understanding if both forms are presented simultaneously rather than successively.For example, instead of lecturing on the income effect and ''then'' showing an animation that also explains it, the explanation and the animation should be presented in a sequential, simultaneous manner.  It is believed that by harnessing both the auditory and visual systems and providing complementary information through each system, the student will not suffer from cognitive overload and will therefore better comprehend the concept being taught.}}
 
 
 
 
 
{{hidden|9. The Spatial Ability Effect|The Spatial Ability Effect has to do with personalizing multimedia presentations for each student.  It holds that students with high spatial ability benefit more from simultaneous presentation of narration, sound and images because they have a higher threshold for undergoing cognitive overload.  Therefore they should be presented with more elaborate multimedia presentations.}}
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
For the original article, click [http://www.elizabethoc.com/9ways/article.pdf here].
 

Latest revision as of 08:37, 3 November 2011

Learn more by reading Mayer and Moreno's paper.

Richard E. Mayer and Roxana Moreno, "Nine Ways to Reduce Cognitive Load in Multimedia Learning," EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGIST, 38(1), 43–52 Copyright © 2003, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.