Difference between revisions of "Inquiry-based learning"

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'''Inquiry-based learning''' is an educational approach in which educators enable students to create knowledge, teaching them to become problem solvers and critical thinkers.  In contrast to a classic 'chalk and talk' presentation, in which an instructor downloads information to students, students learn how to gather, apply, analyze, and evaluate information.   
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'''Inquiry-based learning''' is an educational approach in which educators enable students to create knowledge, teaching them to become problem solvers and critical thinkers.  In contrast to a classic 'chalk and talk' presentation in which an instructor gives information to students, students learn how to gather, apply, analyze, and evaluate information themselves.   
  
 
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== Examples of Inquiry-Based Learning ==
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The implementation of inquiry-based learning curricula has been increasingly popular and successful in recent years.  The [http://www.eric.ed.gov/ Educational Resource Information Center] posts a handbook from the Alberta Ministry of Learning aimed at implementing inquiry-based learning titled "Focus on Inquiry:  A Teacher's Guide to Implementing Inquiry-Based Learning."  To access it, click [http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED491498.pdf/ here].  A similar, shorter document from Penn State can be found [http://www.schreyerinstitute.psu.edu/pdf/IBL.pdf here].
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One example of inquiry-based learning is a partial immersion language program. In partial-immersion language programs, students acquire a world language through content matter instruction.  Learning subjects such as Math, Science and Health in a foreign language promotes language acquisition through use rather than through memorization of vocabulary and verb conjugations.  The program has been cited by education resources profiling the inquiry-based learning method such as [http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/inquiry/ Thirteen.org].
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== Evidence ==
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{{hidden|'''Becker & Watts, 2001.'''|In this article, the authors compare the results of surveys on teaching style conducted in 1995 and then again in 2000. They found that although higher-education institutions have effectively shifted from professors' focus from being more research-oriented to being more focused on their teaching, outdated teaching methods still permeate the discipline.  From the surveys conducted, the authors see that classroom presentations are still dominated by the "chalk and talk" method.  The authors also find that teacher-student discussion does not occur until until upper level courses, and student-student discussion is rare for the discipline as a whole.  On a similar note, it is observed that the use of multiple-choice test formats seems to be excessive--especially in introductory theory courses. Click [http://www.jstor.org/stable/1183384 here] to access the article.}}
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{{hidden|'''Becker & Watts, 2008.'''|"In 1995, 2000, and 2005, the authors surveyed U.S. academic economists to investigate how economics is taught in four different types of undergraduate courses at postsecondary institutions. They especially looked for any changes in teaching methods that occurred over this decade when there were several prominent calls for economists and postsecondary instructors in other fields to devote more attention and effort to teaching and to make greater use of active, student-centered learning methods, with less use of direct instruction ("chalk and talk"). By 2005, although standard lectures and chalkboard presentations were still dominant, there was evidence of slow growth in the use of other teaching methods, including classroom discussions (especially teacher-directed discussions), computer-generated displays (such as PowerPoint), providing students with prepared sets of class notes, and computer lab assignments in econometrics and statistics courses. Internet database searches were used by a small but growing minority of instructors. Classroom experiments were used by a small share of instructors in introductory courses. Assignments or classroom references to the popular financial press, sports, literature, drama, or music were used somewhat more often. Cooperative learning methods were rarely used." Click [http://ideas.repec.org/a/jee/journl/v39y2008i3p273-286.html here] to access it. This study can be found in [[The Journal of Economic Education]]}}
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{{hidden|'''Major & Palmer.'''|"Problem‑Based Learning (PBL) is an innovative educational approach that is gaining prominence in higher education. A review of the literature of PBL outcomes summarizes, across multiple studies, the positive effects of problem‑based learning. Since PBL brings with it unique challenges to traditional assessment, however, this study suggests alternative approaches. Alternative assessment may provide additional insight into the effectiveness of PBL and other alternative pedagogies."  Click [http://www.rapidintellect.com/AEQweb/mop4spr01.htm here] to view it.}}
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{{hidden|'''Peer Instruction: Engaging Students One-on-One, All at Once'''|by Catherine H. Crouch, Jessica Watkins, Adam P. Fagen, and Eric Mazur, reports "Peer Instruction is an instructional strategy for engaging students during class through a structured questioning process that involves every student. We describe Peer Instruction (hereafter PI) and report data from more than ten years of teaching with PI in the calculus- and algebra-based introductory physics courses for non-majors at Harvard University, where this method was developed. Our results indicate increased student mastery of both conceptual reasoning and quantitative problem solving upon implementing PI."  Read more [http://www.compadre.org/portal/document/ServeFile.cfm?ID=4990&DocID=241 here].}}
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== How to Incorporate Inquiry-Based Learning ==
 
== How to Incorporate Inquiry-Based Learning ==
  
 
[[Image:Fx_Bloom_New.jpg|right|Bloom's Taxonomy]]
 
[[Image:Fx_Bloom_New.jpg|right|Bloom's Taxonomy]]
  
Incorporating Inquiry-Based Learning into the classroom implicates changing the environment from one of instruction to one of curiosity and desire for explanations.  This shift in thought can be achieved by adopting several practices and attitudes:
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Incorporating Inquiry-Based Learning into the classroom requires changing the environment from one of passive information reception to one of curiosity and desire for explanations.  This shift in thought can be achieved by adopting several practices and attitudes:
  
 
* '''Become familiar with [http://www.odu.edu/educ/roverbau/Bloom/blooms_taxonomy.htm Bloom's Taxonomy] and help your students move up the pyramid.'''
 
* '''Become familiar with [http://www.odu.edu/educ/roverbau/Bloom/blooms_taxonomy.htm Bloom's Taxonomy] and help your students move up the pyramid.'''
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* '''Use [[simulations and models in the classroom]].'''
 
* '''Use [[simulations and models in the classroom]].'''
  
*''' Place an emphasis on the "how" rather than the "what" of knowledge.''' As in [[cooperative learning]], students learn how it is that current knowledge was generated by using data/observations to derive knowledge.  [http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/inquiry/ Thirteen.org] gives as an example explaining to students what methods were used to conclude what the Earth's different rock layers are rather than just telling them what these layers are called.  Again, by placing an emphasis on the knowledge-creation process, students become accustomed to this way of thought and begin applying it.
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*''' Place an emphasis on the "how" rather than the "what" of knowledge.''' As in [[cooperative learning]], students learn how current knowledge was generated by using data and/or observations to derive knowledge.  [http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/inquiry/ Thirteen.org] gives as an example explaining to students what methods were used to conclude what the Earth's different rock layers are rather than just telling them what these layers are called.  Again, by placing an emphasis on the knowledge-creation process, students become accustomed to this way of thought and begin applying it.
  
* '''Don't emphasize that there is "one right answer."'''  An emphasis on there being a correct answer for a question discourages student involvement during lecture and therefore discourages critical thinking and the desire to understand things beyond "face value."  When students contribute to classroom discussions, identify the value in their comments and then clearly explain what the generally accepted answer entails and why it is that the answer is accepted.
+
* '''Don't emphasize that there is "one right answer."'''  An emphasis on there being a correct answer for a question discourages student involvement during lecture and therefore discourages critical thinking and the desire to understand things beyond "face value."  When students contribute to classroom discussions, identify the value in their comments. Then, clearly explain what the generally accepted answer entails and why it is that the answer is accepted.
  
 
* '''Questions, Questions, Questions.''' As an educator, one should ask open-ended questions that are reflective in nature. This [http://www.exploratorium.edu/IFI/resources/artofquestioning.html article on question types] by Dennie Palmer Wolf.  Wolf explains the differences between Inferences Questions, which "fill in the gaps," Interpretation Questions, which assess comprehension of the consequences of information/ideas, Transfer Questions, which are meant to take knowledge to a new place, and Hypothesis Questions, which relate to predictive thinking.  All together, using these question types fosters an inquiry spirit.
 
* '''Questions, Questions, Questions.''' As an educator, one should ask open-ended questions that are reflective in nature. This [http://www.exploratorium.edu/IFI/resources/artofquestioning.html article on question types] by Dennie Palmer Wolf.  Wolf explains the differences between Inferences Questions, which "fill in the gaps," Interpretation Questions, which assess comprehension of the consequences of information/ideas, Transfer Questions, which are meant to take knowledge to a new place, and Hypothesis Questions, which relate to predictive thinking.  All together, using these question types fosters an inquiry spirit.
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* '''Schedule recitation sessions with students.''' Recitation sessions allow for close, one-on-one discussion of abstract concepts, of which there are many in the Economics discipline.  By having a small group of students meet with a professor to discuss the weeks problem set, one sets the stage for critical discussions--students can discuss their ideas with each other and the professor and therefore gain a multidimensional understanding of concepts.
 
* '''Schedule recitation sessions with students.''' Recitation sessions allow for close, one-on-one discussion of abstract concepts, of which there are many in the Economics discipline.  By having a small group of students meet with a professor to discuss the weeks problem set, one sets the stage for critical discussions--students can discuss their ideas with each other and the professor and therefore gain a multidimensional understanding of concepts.
  
 
== Examples of Inquiry-Based Learning ==
 
 
The implementation of inquiry-based learning curricula has been increasingly popular and successful in recent years.  The [http://www.eric.ed.gov/ Educational Resource Information Center] posts a handbook from the Alberta Ministry of Learning aimed at implementing inquiry-based learning titled "Focus on Inquiry:  A Teacher's Guide to Implementing Inquiry-Based Learning."  To access it, click [http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED491498.pdf/ here].  A similar, shorter document from Penn State can be found [http://www.schreyerinstitute.psu.edu/pdf/IBL.pdf here].
 
 
In partial-immersion language programs students acquire a world language through content matter instruction.  Learning subjects such as Math, Science and Health in a foreign language promotes language acquisition through use rather than through memorization of vocabulary and verb conjugations.  The program has been cited by education resources profiling the inquiry-based learning method such as [http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/inquiry/ Thirteen.org].
 
 
== Evidence ==
 
{{hidden|'''Becker & Watts, 2001.'''|In this article, the authors compare the results of surveys on teaching style conducted in 1995 and then again in 2000. They found that although higher-education institutions have effectively shifted from professors' focus from being more research-oriented to being more focused on their teaching, outdated teaching methods still permeate the discipline.  From the surveys conducted, the authors see that classroom presentations are still dominated by the "chalk and talk" method.  The authors also find that teacher-student discussion does not occur until until upper level courses, and student-student discussion is rare for the discipline as a whole.  On a similar note, it is observed that the use of multiple-choice test formats seems to be excessive--especially in introductory theory courses. Click [http://www.jstor.org/stable/1183384 here] to access the article.}}
 
 
{{hidden|'''Becker & Watts, 2008.'''|"In 1995, 2000, and 2005, the authors surveyed U.S. academic economists to investigate how economics is taught in four different types of undergraduate courses at postsecondary institutions. They especially looked for any changes in teaching methods that occurred over this decade, when there were several prominent calls for economists and postsecondary instructors in other fields to devote more attention and effort to teaching and to make greater use of active, student-centered learning methods, with less use of direct instruction ("chalk and talk"). By 2005, although standard lectures and chalkboard presentations were still dominant, there was evidence of slow growth in the use of other teaching methods, including classroom discussions (especially teacher-directed discussions), computer-generated displays (such as PowerPoint), providing students with prepared sets of class notes, and computer lab assignments in econometrics and statistics courses. Internet database searches were used by a small but growing minority of instructors. Classroom experiments were used by a small share of instructors in introductory courses. Assignments or classroom references to the popular financial press, sports, literature, drama, or music were used somewhat more often. Cooperative learning methods were rarely used." Click [http://ideas.repec.org/a/jee/journl/v39y2008i3p273-286.html here] to access it. This study can be found in [[The Journal of Economic Education]]}}
 
 
{{hidden|'''Major & Palmer.'''|"Problem‑Based Learning (PBL) is an innovative educational approach that is gaining prominence in higher education. A review of the literature of PBL outcomes summarizes, across multiple studies, the positive effects of problem‑based learning. Since PBL brings with it unique challenges to traditional assessment, however, this study suggests alternative approaches. Alternative assessment may provide additional insight into the effectiveness of PBL and other alternative pedagogies."  Click [http://www.rapidintellect.com/AEQweb/mop4spr01.htm here] to view it.}}
 
 
{{hidden|'''Peer Instruction: Engaging Students One-on-One, All at Once'''|by Catherine H. Crouch, Jessica Watkins, Adam P. Fagen, and Eric Mazur, reports "Peer Instruction is an instructional strategy for engaging students during class through a structured questioning process that involves every student. We describe Peer Instruction (hereafter PI) and report data from more than ten years of teaching with PI in the calculus- and algebra-based introductory physics courses for non-majors at Harvard University, where this method was developed. Our results indicate increased student mastery of both conceptual reasoning and quantitative problem solving upon implementing PI."  Read more [http://www.compadre.org/portal/document/ServeFile.cfm?ID=4990&DocID=241 here].}}
 
  
 
== Conclusion ==
 
== Conclusion ==

Revision as of 23:07, 14 June 2012

Inquiry-based learning is an educational approach in which educators enable students to create knowledge, teaching them to become problem solvers and critical thinkers. In contrast to a classic 'chalk and talk' presentation in which an instructor gives information to students, students learn how to gather, apply, analyze, and evaluate information themselves.


Examples of Inquiry-Based Learning

The implementation of inquiry-based learning curricula has been increasingly popular and successful in recent years. The Educational Resource Information Center posts a handbook from the Alberta Ministry of Learning aimed at implementing inquiry-based learning titled "Focus on Inquiry: A Teacher's Guide to Implementing Inquiry-Based Learning." To access it, click here. A similar, shorter document from Penn State can be found here.

One example of inquiry-based learning is a partial immersion language program. In partial-immersion language programs, students acquire a world language through content matter instruction. Learning subjects such as Math, Science and Health in a foreign language promotes language acquisition through use rather than through memorization of vocabulary and verb conjugations. The program has been cited by education resources profiling the inquiry-based learning method such as Thirteen.org.

Evidence

How to Incorporate Inquiry-Based Learning

Bloom's Taxonomy

Incorporating Inquiry-Based Learning into the classroom requires changing the environment from one of passive information reception to one of curiosity and desire for explanations. This shift in thought can be achieved by adopting several practices and attitudes:

  • Become familiar with Bloom's Taxonomy and help your students move up the pyramid.
  • Place an emphasis on the "how" rather than the "what" of knowledge. As in cooperative learning, students learn how current knowledge was generated by using data and/or observations to derive knowledge. Thirteen.org gives as an example explaining to students what methods were used to conclude what the Earth's different rock layers are rather than just telling them what these layers are called. Again, by placing an emphasis on the knowledge-creation process, students become accustomed to this way of thought and begin applying it.
  • Don't emphasize that there is "one right answer." An emphasis on there being a correct answer for a question discourages student involvement during lecture and therefore discourages critical thinking and the desire to understand things beyond "face value." When students contribute to classroom discussions, identify the value in their comments. Then, clearly explain what the generally accepted answer entails and why it is that the answer is accepted.
  • Questions, Questions, Questions. As an educator, one should ask open-ended questions that are reflective in nature. This article on question types by Dennie Palmer Wolf. Wolf explains the differences between Inferences Questions, which "fill in the gaps," Interpretation Questions, which assess comprehension of the consequences of information/ideas, Transfer Questions, which are meant to take knowledge to a new place, and Hypothesis Questions, which relate to predictive thinking. All together, using these question types fosters an inquiry spirit.
  • Teach using the case method. Providing students with a case representative of the lesson's educational objective effectively engages them beyond pure memorization. With case methods, students are forced to truly understand the underlying concept and apply it to the analysis of the case. Click here to see a guide to implementing the case method in the Economics classroom.
  • Use problem sets with context-rich problems. Problem sets effectively engage the student by asking it to apply knowledge from the lesson. More importantly, using context-rich problems that provide real-life applications of the lesson, and at times excess information, force the student to truly comprehend the material. For a guide on using context-rich problems in the Economics classroom click here. The use of technology in the classroom also enables inquiry-based learning by providing students with multiple resources and representations of the same information.
  • Schedule recitation sessions with students. Recitation sessions allow for close, one-on-one discussion of abstract concepts, of which there are many in the Economics discipline. By having a small group of students meet with a professor to discuss the weeks problem set, one sets the stage for critical discussions--students can discuss their ideas with each other and the professor and therefore gain a multidimensional understanding of concepts.


Conclusion

The rate of information dissemination has dramatically increased, due to technological development and global interconnection. As result, an educational system that places an emphasis on vast memorization is inefficient. Instead, educational systems should be reorganized to emphasize problem-solving and the generation of knowledge. This shift can be achieved by fostering an environment of inquiry. Inquiry-Based Learning is a tool educators can use to craft student minds that seek more than just concrete answers and rather enjoy full comprehension of the mechanisms underlying the what is known. In other words, by employing Inquiry-Based Learning methods educators can help students learn to create knowledge.