Difference between revisions of "Multimedia Presentations"

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*'''Avoid duplication.'''  Research by Jamet and Le Bohec in 2006 showed that presenting students with a Powerpoint presentation that directly mirrored the instructor's lecture resulted in lower information recall on multiple types of tests.  
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*'''Avoid duplication.'''  Research by Jamet and Le Bohec in 2006 showed a negative effect on several forms of information recall for students presented with PowerPoint presentations with written text that directly mirrored the instructor's lecture.
  
 
*'''Concise is better.'''  Research in 2003 by Bartsch and Cohern showed that elaborate PowerPoint features such as unrelated images, sounds, and extraneous information impaired student learning.  
 
*'''Concise is better.'''  Research in 2003 by Bartsch and Cohern showed that elaborate PowerPoint features such as unrelated images, sounds, and extraneous information impaired student learning.  
  
*'''Draw graphs in class.''' Research in 2003 by Stern, Aprea and Ebner showed that groups presented with a graph that was ‘actively illustrated’ performed better in recall tasks than groups passively presented with the same graph. 'Actively illustration' is when students are asked to develop a graph themselves rather than merely having a graph shown to them.
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*'''Draw graphs in class.''' Research in 2003 by Stern, Aprea and Ebner showed that groups presented with a graph that was ‘actively illustrated’ performed better in recall tasks than groups passively presented with the same graph.
  
  
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== "9 Ways to Reduce Cognitive Load in Multimedia Learning" (Mayer & Moreno, 2003) ==
 
== "9 Ways to Reduce Cognitive Load in Multimedia Learning" (Mayer & Moreno, 2003) ==
  
Mayer and Moreno propose a theory of multimedia learning and Cognitive Overload based on 3 assumptions. The first is called the dual-channel assumption and says that humans process verbal and visual in separate systems. The second, the limited-capacity assumption, argues that a limit exists as to the amount of information each system can process at any given time. Lastly, the active-processing assumption says that meaningful learning represents necessitates higher cognitive processes such as building connections between verbal and visual representations of information. If these assumptions hold, multimedia learning may present a challenge to student's mental capacity, particularly for students who are not strong visual and/or verbal learners. The authors propose several ways of alleviating Cognitive Overload here: [["9 Ways to Reduce Cognitive Load in Multimedia Learning" (Mayer & Moreno, 2003)]].
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Mayer and Moreno propose a theory of multimedia learning and Cognitive Overload based on 3 assumptions: the dual-channel assumption (humans process verbal and visual in separate systems), the limited-capacity assumption (a limit exists as to the amount of information each system can process at any given time), and the active-processing assumption (meaningful learning represents necessitates higher cognitive processes such as building connections between verbal and visual representations of information).   The authors propose several ways of alleviating Cognitive Overload here: [["9 Ways to Reduce Cognitive Load in Multimedia Learning" (Mayer & Moreno, 2003)]].
  
 
== Evidence ==
 
== Evidence ==
{{hidden|'''Using Effective Visuals In PowerPoints- Bartsch & Cobern, 2003.'''|
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{{hidden|'''Bartsch & Cobern, 2003.'''|"We investigated whether students liked and learned more from PowerPoint presentations than from overhead transparencies. Students were exposed to lectures supported by transparencies and two different types of PowerPoint presentations. At the end of the semester, students preferred PowerPoint presentations but this preference was not found on ratings taken immediately after the lectures. Students performed worse on quizzes when PowerPoint presentations included non-text items such as pictures and sound effects. A second study further examined these findings. In this study participants were shown PowerPoint slides that contained only text, contained text and a relevant picture, and contained text with a picture that was not relevant. Students performed worse on recall and recognition tasks and had greater dislike for slides with pictures that were not relevant. We conclude that PowerPoint can be beneficial, but material that is not pertinent to the presentation can be harmful to students' learning." Search for EJ778703 [http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/ here] to see the study.}}
 
 
While PowerPoints can be an effective teaching tool, it is important that teachers use visuals and effects judiciously. Bartsch and Cohen (2003) discussed two separate studies which examined the the effectiveness of and reaction to the use of PowerPoint presentations in college lecture classes. The first study compared a contrasted PowerPoint presentations with transparencies as a tool to improve student performance and satisfaction in a course. Lecturers presented students with three types of multimedia: transparencies, basic PowerPoint (text only), and expanded PowerPoint (animated text, pictures, and sound). While researchers found no difference in students' liking of the three formats, the students felt that they learned more from PowerPoint presentations. However, students performed approximately 10% worse when presented with material in the expanded PowerPoint treatment than in the basic PowerPoint or the transparency treatment. This suggests that excessive use of visual effects may be harmful to the learning process.In light of this finding, Bartsch and Cohen next looked at whether the relevancy of graphics affected the impact of a presentation on performance. Students watched three types of PowerPoints: text-only, text and relevant visuals, and text and irrelevant visuals. They then were tested on their memory of facts from the PowerPoint Results showed that relevant visuals did not cause students to perform better or worse than a text-only PowerPoint, but that irrelevant visuals caused students to perform worse than in the other two conditions. Bartsch and Cohen conclude that while PowerPoints can be beneficial, "material that is not pertinent to the presentation can be harmful to students' learning."
 
 
 
To read the full study, click [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360131503000277 here].}}
 
 
   
 
   
 
{{hidden|'''Jamet & Le Bohec, 2006.'''|"The purpose of this study was to examine the redundancy effects obtained when spoken information was duplicated in writing during the learning of a multimedia document. Documents consisting of diagrams and spoken information on the development of memory models were presented to three groups of students. In the first group, no written text was presented. In the second, written sentences redundant with the spoken information were progressively presented on the screen, while in the third group these written sentences were presented together. The results show that whatever the type of text presentation (sequential or static), the duplication of information in the written mode led to a substantial impairment in subsequent retention and transfer tests as well as in a task in which the memorization of diagrams was evaluated. This last result supports the hypothesis that the visual channel is overloaded as the cognitive theory of multimedia learning suggests."  Click [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0361476X06000294/ here] to see the study.}}
 
{{hidden|'''Jamet & Le Bohec, 2006.'''|"The purpose of this study was to examine the redundancy effects obtained when spoken information was duplicated in writing during the learning of a multimedia document. Documents consisting of diagrams and spoken information on the development of memory models were presented to three groups of students. In the first group, no written text was presented. In the second, written sentences redundant with the spoken information were progressively presented on the screen, while in the third group these written sentences were presented together. The results show that whatever the type of text presentation (sequential or static), the duplication of information in the written mode led to a substantial impairment in subsequent retention and transfer tests as well as in a task in which the memorization of diagrams was evaluated. This last result supports the hypothesis that the visual channel is overloaded as the cognitive theory of multimedia learning suggests."  Click [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0361476X06000294/ here] to see the study.}}

Revision as of 12:17, 8 June 2012

Many instructors use multimedia, including presentation tools such as Microsoft PowerPoint, in the classroom to hold students' attention and to streamline class preparation. Here is what the latest research tells us about the effective use of multimedia presentations:

alt text


  • Avoid duplication. Research by Jamet and Le Bohec in 2006 showed a negative effect on several forms of information recall for students presented with PowerPoint presentations with written text that directly mirrored the instructor's lecture.
  • Concise is better. Research in 2003 by Bartsch and Cohern showed that elaborate PowerPoint features such as unrelated images, sounds, and extraneous information impaired student learning.
  • Draw graphs in class. Research in 2003 by Stern, Aprea and Ebner showed that groups presented with a graph that was ‘actively illustrated’ performed better in recall tasks than groups passively presented with the same graph.


The following website: Starting Point: Teaching and Learning Economics, which was created by KimMarie McGoldrick (University of Richmond), Scott Simkins (North Carolina A&T University), Mark Maier (Glendale Community College), and Cathy Manduca (Carleton College), contains more information concerning technology in the economics classroom.

"9 Ways to Reduce Cognitive Load in Multimedia Learning" (Mayer & Moreno, 2003)

Mayer and Moreno propose a theory of multimedia learning and Cognitive Overload based on 3 assumptions: the dual-channel assumption (humans process verbal and visual in separate systems), the limited-capacity assumption (a limit exists as to the amount of information each system can process at any given time), and the active-processing assumption (meaningful learning represents necessitates higher cognitive processes such as building connections between verbal and visual representations of information). The authors propose several ways of alleviating Cognitive Overload here: "9 Ways to Reduce Cognitive Load in Multimedia Learning" (Mayer & Moreno, 2003).

Evidence

Conclusion

Multimedia should serve as a guide to lecture, not compete with the teacher. This means teachers have to be careful to not only keep student attention, but also make smart multimedia decisions to ensure every minute of lecture is transmitting information to the student in an efficient, engaging way.