From Diversifying Economic Quality: A Wiki for Instructors and Departments
A number of studies have pointed to non-diverse economics department faculty as a deterrent for women and racial minorities to pursue further studies in economics.
Research (Lockwood, 2006) shows that exposure to a female role model improves a woman’s feelings of self-efficacy and ratings of potential future career success more than exposure to a male role model. Additionally, Lockwood found that women cited other women as more often influential in their career paths than men. These findings suggest the importance of gender-matching in career role models. Because there are fewer women in the economics, the lack of role models for women may be a potential cause for further stereotype threat and disidentication from the sciences.
Because economics can be a very math-heavy field, women and minority students may be subject to [Stereotype Threat ]. Having same-gender or race role models may be effective in buffering against this stereotype threat. Psychologists Marx and Roman found that the presence of a highly competent female role model in mathematics protected female students from the negative effects of stereotype threat. In the first study, participants took a math test and self-esteem survey in the presence of either a male or female researcher who identified himself or herself as a math major. Marx and Roman found that female participants performed better and had higher state-self esteem in the female researcher condition. Men’s performance and self-esteem levels were equivalent across conditions. In follow up studies, participants read biographical descriptions of female students who were either math majors (math competent) or English majors who had taken a few math courses (math incompetent) as a sample essay and then completed a math test, a state self-esteem survey, and a self-appraisal of math competence. Descriptions of competent female math role models increased performance, state self-esteem, and self-appraisal of competence levels. Based on these findings, it is clear that competent same-gender role models in the economics would act as a buffer to stereotype threat.
The absence of women and racial minorities from economics department faculty presents a message that students belonging to underrepresented groups are not welcome and may not be able to break into the field. The presence of a diverse faculty creates a more comfortable environment for underrepresented students, and typically results in increased participation rates by these students. A diverse faculty is not only important in terms of role modeling for a diverse student body, but also for presenting a different perspective in the economics classroom.
- Listen to Damon Williams speak on Towards a Model of Inclusive Excellence: Promising Practices for Advancing Faculty Diversity.
- Read How to Diversify the Faculty, By Daryl G. Smith. "Get beyond the myths and adopt new hiring practices if you want to add significant numbers of minority group members to the faculty"
- Read "Interrupting the Usual: Successful Strategies for Hiring Diverse Faculty," by Daryl G. Smith, Caroline S. Turner, Nana Osei-Kofi, and Sandra Richards, The Journal of Higher Education, Vol. 75, No. 2 (March/April 2004)
Catanese, A.V. (1991) Faculty Role Models and Diversifying the Gender and Racial Mix of Undergraduate Economics Majors. The Journal of Economic Education Vol. 22, No. 3, Special Issue on Undergraduate Economic Education (Summer, 1991), pp. 276-284 Article Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1183114
Lockwood, P. (2006). “Someone Like Me Can Be Successful”: Do College Students Need Same-Gender Role Models? Psychology of Women Quarterly. Vol.30, p 36-46. Marx, D., & Roman, J. (2002). Female Role Models : Protecting Women’s Math Test Performance. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. Vol. 28:9. P 1183- 1193.