Difference between revisions of "Stereotype threat"

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'''Stereotype threat''' is when an individual is at risk of confirming a negative stereotype about his or her own group. Therefore, an individual may not perform according to his or her innate ability, rather this ability is impacted by generally held beliefs regarding this individual's grouping, whether it is by sex, age, gender, race, etc. [http://www.reducingstereotypethreat.org/definition.html  Click Here] to learn more.   
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'''Stereotype threat''' is a psychological mechanism in which a person's performance is inhibited by prevalent stereotypes about a group to which the person belongs. This threat occurs when an individual is at risk of confirming a negative stereotype about his or her own group. The individual may not perform according to his or her true ability; rather, concerns about confirming generally held beliefs regarding this individual's grouping (e.g., sex, age, gender, race, etc.) cause him or her to under-perform.  [http://www.reducingstereotypethreat.org/definition.html  Click Here] to learn more.   
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== Evidence of Stereotype Threat ==
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'''[http://www.reducingstereotypethreat.org/bibliography_steele_aronson.html Steele & Aronson (1995)]''' found that "Black college freshmen and sophomores performed more poorly on standardized tests than White students when their race was emphasized. When race was not emphasized, however, Black students performed better and equivalently with White students. The results showed that performance in academic contexts can be harmed by the awareness that one's behavior might be viewed through the lens of racial stereotypes." 
  
== Examples of Stereotype Threat ==
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'''[http://course1.winona.edu/CFried/documents/stthreat.pdf Aronson, Fried, & Good (2002)]''' produced evidence that "encouraging students to see intelligence as malleable (i.e., embrace an incremental theory of intelligence) can raise enjoyment and performance in academic contexts."  In their experiment, college students in the treatment group learned an incremental theory of intelligence and wrote a letter explaining the theory to a low-performing middle school pen pal.  "The African American students (and, to some degree, the White students) encouraged to view intelligence as malleable reported greater enjoyment of the academic process, greater academic engagement, and obtained higher grade point averages than their counterparts in two control groups."
  
[http://www.reducingstereotypethreat.org/bibliography_steele_aronson.html Steele & Aronson, 1995]
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'''[http://www.reducingstereotypethreat.org/bibliography_ambady_paik_steele_owen-smith_mitchell.html Ambady, Paik, Steele, Owen-Smith, & Mitchell (2004)]''' showed that "individuation (priming an individual to recall her distinct interests and abilities) can serve as a buffer against stereotype threat, perhaps because it allows a means for individuals to distance the self from identities linked to the stereotype in question."
  
[http://www.reducingstereotypethreat.org/bibliography_aronson_fried_good.html  Aronson, Fried, & Good, 2002]
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Click [http://www.reducingstereotypethreat.org/bibliography.html  here] for a more complete listing of studies that document the existence, mediation, and moderation of stereotype threat.
  
[http://www.reducingstereotypethreat.org/bibliography_ambady_paik_steele_owen-smith_mitchell.html  Ambady, Paik, Steele, Owen-Smith, & Mitchell, 2004]
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[[File:Stereotype threat.jpg|right]]
 
 
 
 
== What Economists Have to Say about Stereotype Threat ==
 
 
 
Christina Günther (MPI of Economics, Evolutionary Economics Group), Neslihan Arslan Ekincib, Christiane Schwieren(University of Heidelberg, Department of Economics AWI), and Martin Strobel (Universiteit Maastricht, Department of Economics) conducted a study presenting a possible explanation for the wage gap between men and women. Their finding suggested a stereotype threat explanation for this issue. "Women tend not to compete with men in areas where they (rightly or wrongly) think that they will lose anyway – and the same holds for men." Since the field of economics is perceived as a "male" field, women may underperform or be discouraged from the field due to the perception that they do not belong.
 
 
 
'''Abstract:''' [http://www.uibk.ac.at/economics/bbl/teaching_ss09/schwieren_women_cant_innsbruck.pdf Women can’t jump? – An experiment on competitive attitudes and stereotype threat]
 
 
 
-How men and women respond differently in competitive situations, whether their response differences can be attributed to perceptions that women do not have the ability to equally compete against men ect.
 
 
 
http://www.economics.harvard.edu/files/faculty/21_Stereotype_Jan_16%20(PDF).pdf
 
 
 
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167268110000855
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
sites.google.com/site/cscotton/research/CMP_GenderTheory.pdf
 
"Policy makers should recognize that the performance differ- ences during competition are likely not the result of females responding negatively to competition, but rather the result of males responding favorably to competition. They are also not likely due to misperception of relative ability, either because of self confidence differences or gender stereotypes. This suggests that efforts to expose females to competition in an effort to decrease underconfidence or improve misperceptions about ability differences may not have a significant effect on the gender gap."
 
  
 
== How to Reduce Stereotype Threat ==
 
== How to Reduce Stereotype Threat ==
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[[File:Stereotype threat.jpg|right]]
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* [[biology is not destiny|Foster a growth mindset]] in your students.
 
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*Reframing the task
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*Reframe the task.
 
 
*Deemphasizing threatened social identities
 
 
 
*Encouraging self-affirmation
 
 
 
*Emphasizing high standards with assurances of capability
 
 
 
*Providing role models
 
 
 
*Providing external attributions for difficulty
 
 
 
*Emphasizing an incremental view of ability
 
 
 
 
 
[http://www.reducingstereotypethreat.org/reduce.html  Click Here] for details in how to implement the above solutions.
 
  
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*Deemphasize threatened social identities.
  
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*Encourage [[values affirmation]].
  
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*Provide [[wise criticism]], emphasizing high standards with assurances of capability.
  
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*Provide [ftp://ftp1.economics.smu.edu/WorkingPapers/2017/SERRA/SERRA-2017-05.pdf role models].
  
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*Provide external attributions for difficulty.
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* Read about more [https://ed.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/interventionshandout.pdf Empirically Validated Strategies to Reduce Stereotype Threat].
  
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[http://www.reducingstereotypethreat.org/reduce.html  Click Here] to go to www.ReducingStereotypeThreat.org for details on how to implement the above solutions.
  
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== What Economists Have to Say about Stereotype Threat ==
  
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Christina Günther (MPI of Economics, Evolutionary Economics Group), Neslihan Arslan Ekincib, Christiane Schwieren (University of Heidelberg, Department of Economics AWI), and Martin Strobel (Universiteit Maastricht, Department of Economics) conducted [http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/505559/description#description experiments] supporting a stereotype threat explanation for the wage gap between men and women. "Women tend not to compete with men in areas where they (rightly or wrongly) think that they will lose anyway – and the same holds for men."    Their findings can be linked to the performance of women in the economics classroom. Since the field of economics is perceived as a "male" field, women may underperform or be discouraged from the field due to the perception that they do not belong.
  
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In [http://www.nber.org/papers/w14705.pdf "Stereotype Threat and the Student-Athlete"] (NBER Working Papers: 14705, 2009), Thomas S. Dee "presents an economic model of stereotype threat [as well as] empirical evidence from a laboratory experiment in which students at a selective college were randomly assigned to a treatment that primed their awareness of a stereotyped identity (i.e., student-athlete). This treatment reduced the test-score performance of athletes relative to non-athletes by 14 percent (effect size = -1.0)."
  
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There is very little literature from economists concerning stereotype threat itself, let alone stereotype threat in the classroom.  As of May 2012, only ten publications show up in an Econlit search for "stereotype threat." Psychologists have explored this topic extensively, but the majority of research looks at the general implications of academic stereotypes of racial minorities and the implications in STEM of gender stereotypes. Very little research has examined the incidence of stereotype threat within the field of Economics.
  
 
==Conclusion==
 
==Conclusion==
 
In order to create a more inclusive classroom environment, economics professors should be aware of stereotype threat and its potential effects upon students. To explore more information concerning stereotype threat, please go to this [http://www.reducingstereotypethreat.org/  website]
 
In order to create a more inclusive classroom environment, economics professors should be aware of stereotype threat and its potential effects upon students. To explore more information concerning stereotype threat, please go to this [http://www.reducingstereotypethreat.org/  website]
  
== Sources ==
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Stroessner, Steven, and Catherine Good. ReducingStereotypeThreat.org. Consortium of High Achievement and Success (CHAS) and Barnard College. Web. 11 July 2011. <http://www.reducingstereotypethreat.org/>.
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{{hidden|Sources|
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Stroessner, Steven, and Catherine Good. ReducingStereotypeThreat.org. Consortium of High Achievement and Success (CHAS) and Barnard College. Web. 11 July 2011. <http://www.reducingstereotypethreat.org/>.}}

Latest revision as of 11:41, 4 June 2019

Stereotype threat is a psychological mechanism in which a person's performance is inhibited by prevalent stereotypes about a group to which the person belongs. This threat occurs when an individual is at risk of confirming a negative stereotype about his or her own group. The individual may not perform according to his or her true ability; rather, concerns about confirming generally held beliefs regarding this individual's grouping (e.g., sex, age, gender, race, etc.) cause him or her to under-perform. Click Here to learn more.

Evidence of Stereotype Threat

Steele & Aronson (1995) found that "Black college freshmen and sophomores performed more poorly on standardized tests than White students when their race was emphasized. When race was not emphasized, however, Black students performed better and equivalently with White students. The results showed that performance in academic contexts can be harmed by the awareness that one's behavior might be viewed through the lens of racial stereotypes."

Aronson, Fried, & Good (2002) produced evidence that "encouraging students to see intelligence as malleable (i.e., embrace an incremental theory of intelligence) can raise enjoyment and performance in academic contexts." In their experiment, college students in the treatment group learned an incremental theory of intelligence and wrote a letter explaining the theory to a low-performing middle school pen pal. "The African American students (and, to some degree, the White students) encouraged to view intelligence as malleable reported greater enjoyment of the academic process, greater academic engagement, and obtained higher grade point averages than their counterparts in two control groups."

Ambady, Paik, Steele, Owen-Smith, & Mitchell (2004) showed that "individuation (priming an individual to recall her distinct interests and abilities) can serve as a buffer against stereotype threat, perhaps because it allows a means for individuals to distance the self from identities linked to the stereotype in question."

Click here for a more complete listing of studies that document the existence, mediation, and moderation of stereotype threat.

Stereotype threat.jpg

How to Reduce Stereotype Threat

  • Reframe the task.
  • Deemphasize threatened social identities.
  • Provide wise criticism, emphasizing high standards with assurances of capability.
  • Provide external attributions for difficulty.

Click Here to go to www.ReducingStereotypeThreat.org for details on how to implement the above solutions.

What Economists Have to Say about Stereotype Threat

Christina Günther (MPI of Economics, Evolutionary Economics Group), Neslihan Arslan Ekincib, Christiane Schwieren (University of Heidelberg, Department of Economics AWI), and Martin Strobel (Universiteit Maastricht, Department of Economics) conducted experiments supporting a stereotype threat explanation for the wage gap between men and women. "Women tend not to compete with men in areas where they (rightly or wrongly) think that they will lose anyway – and the same holds for men." Their findings can be linked to the performance of women in the economics classroom. Since the field of economics is perceived as a "male" field, women may underperform or be discouraged from the field due to the perception that they do not belong.

In "Stereotype Threat and the Student-Athlete" (NBER Working Papers: 14705, 2009), Thomas S. Dee "presents an economic model of stereotype threat [as well as] empirical evidence from a laboratory experiment in which students at a selective college were randomly assigned to a treatment that primed their awareness of a stereotyped identity (i.e., student-athlete). This treatment reduced the test-score performance of athletes relative to non-athletes by 14 percent (effect size = -1.0)."

There is very little literature from economists concerning stereotype threat itself, let alone stereotype threat in the classroom. As of May 2012, only ten publications show up in an Econlit search for "stereotype threat." Psychologists have explored this topic extensively, but the majority of research looks at the general implications of academic stereotypes of racial minorities and the implications in STEM of gender stereotypes. Very little research has examined the incidence of stereotype threat within the field of Economics.

Conclusion

In order to create a more inclusive classroom environment, economics professors should be aware of stereotype threat and its potential effects upon students. To explore more information concerning stereotype threat, please go to this website