Difference between revisions of "Wait time"

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'''Wait time''' is the duration of a pause after a question is posed. Studies have shown that students of color and female students respond positively when wait time is increased.  
 
'''Wait time''' is the duration of a pause after a question is posed. Studies have shown that students of color and female students respond positively when wait time is increased.  
 
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==Example==
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Myra Sadker, a former professor of Education and Dean of the School of Education at American Univeristy, and David Sadker, also a professor of Education at American University, investigated the effect of '''wait time''' on differential participation in the class discussion. Their study and observation of undergraduate classrooms found that teachers unconsciously gave white males more wait time than female students and students of color. Sadker and Sadker hypothesize that longer pauses after questions convey a "vote of confidence" for the student's answer and, thus, motivate participation.
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==Evidence of Positive Effects of Wait Time==
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Studies compiled by Robert J. Stahl, a Professor in the Division of Curriculum and Instruction at Arizona State University, show that increasing wait time to 3 or more seconds results in positive effects for both teacher and student. Typically, a teacher waits between 0.7 and 1.4 seconds after a question before beginning to talk again. Stahl proposes increasing this wait time to 3-7 seconds. For students, increasing wait time increases the length and accuracy of question responses, increases the number of appropriate responses volunteered by students, and increases the academic achievement level (e.g., test scores) of the students. Additionally, teachers who implement a longer wait time also tend to ask higher quality questions, vary their questioning strategies, and ask questions that challenge students to use more complex information processing skills. 
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==Example of the Effects of Wait Time Among Minority Students==
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Studies have shown that teachers devote a differential amounts of wait time to male/female students and  students of minority race/Caucasian students.  Myra Sadker, a former professor of Education and Dean of the School of Education at American Univeristy, and David Sadker, also a professor of Education at American University, investigated the effect of these differential '''wait times''' on differential participation in the class discussion. Their study and observation of undergraduate classrooms found that teachers unconsciously gave white males more wait time than female students and students of color. Sadker and Sadker hypothesize that longer pauses after questions convey a "vote of confidence" for the student's answer and, thus, motivate participation. This bias in favor of white male students' participation in class ultimately disadvantages the success of women and students of minority races.
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==How to incorporate wait time==
 
==How to incorporate wait time==
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==Evidence==
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Studies compiled by Robert J. Stahl, a Professor in the Division of Curriculum and Instruction at Arizona State University, have shown that increasing wait time to 3 or more seconds results in positive effects for both teacher and student. These benefits include increased number and length of relevant responses volunteered, as well as improved questioning techniques by the teacher. Typical increased wait times lasted between 3 and 7 seconds for high-level questions, as opposed to the <1 second wait time for all questions observed in most classrooms.
 
  
  

Revision as of 22:39, 3 June 2012

Wait time is the duration of a pause after a question is posed. Studies have shown that students of color and female students respond positively when wait time is increased.


Evidence of Positive Effects of Wait Time

Studies compiled by Robert J. Stahl, a Professor in the Division of Curriculum and Instruction at Arizona State University, show that increasing wait time to 3 or more seconds results in positive effects for both teacher and student. Typically, a teacher waits between 0.7 and 1.4 seconds after a question before beginning to talk again. Stahl proposes increasing this wait time to 3-7 seconds. For students, increasing wait time increases the length and accuracy of question responses, increases the number of appropriate responses volunteered by students, and increases the academic achievement level (e.g., test scores) of the students. Additionally, teachers who implement a longer wait time also tend to ask higher quality questions, vary their questioning strategies, and ask questions that challenge students to use more complex information processing skills.


Example of the Effects of Wait Time Among Minority Students

Studies have shown that teachers devote a differential amounts of wait time to male/female students and students of minority race/Caucasian students. Myra Sadker, a former professor of Education and Dean of the School of Education at American Univeristy, and David Sadker, also a professor of Education at American University, investigated the effect of these differential wait times on differential participation in the class discussion. Their study and observation of undergraduate classrooms found that teachers unconsciously gave white males more wait time than female students and students of color. Sadker and Sadker hypothesize that longer pauses after questions convey a "vote of confidence" for the student's answer and, thus, motivate participation. This bias in favor of white male students' participation in class ultimately disadvantages the success of women and students of minority races.


How to incorporate wait time

Link:http://irishautismaction.blogspot.com/2010/02/vote-on-time.html
  • Try to be more mindful of differential teacher-student interactions in the classroom.
  • Undergraduate professors could track and codify participation in class discussion.
  • Formulate plans to randomize grouped class seating.
  • Include group and presentation work.
  • Increase wait times for all students.