From Diversifying Economic Quality: A Wiki for Instructors and Departments
Wait time is the duration of a pause after a question is posed. Studies have shown that students of color and female students respond positively when wait time is increased.
Myra Sadker, a former professor of Education and Dean of the School of Education at American Univeristy, and David Sadker, also a professor of Education at American University, investigated the effect of wait time on differential participation in the class discussion. Their study and observation of undergraduate classrooms found that teachers unconsciously gave white males more wait time than female students and students of color. Sadker and Sadker hypothesize that longer pauses after questions convey a "vote of confidence" for the student's answer, and thus motivates participation.
How to incorporate wait time
- Try to be more mindful of differential teacher-student interactions in the classroom
- Undergraduate professors could track and codify participation in class discussion
- Formulate plans to randomize grouped class seating
- Include group and presentation work
- Increase wait times for all students.