Berik/Grammar

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(further formatting later)

Nouns

Nouns occurring as the subject of a sentence typically receive the suffix «-na». However, not every noun receives this inflection.

Consider the following examples where subjects receive the suffix «-na»

  • bangge<n><subj> ↔ banggena

Locational suffixes « -ap » "towards" and « -wer » "away from" occur on nouns.

  • jina<n>+ap<post> ↔ jinap
  • jina<n>+wer<post> ↔ jinawer

When the direction irrelevant, either may be used.

  • sita<n>+ap<post> ↔ sitap
  • sita<n>+wer<post> ↔ sitawer

The suffix « -yan » sometimes occurs on nouns in non-transitive clauses and is used to negate the clause.

  • tane<n>+yan<neg> ↔ taneyan
  • bwernabar<n>+bwernabar<neg> ↔ bwernabaryan

The suffix « -em » occurs on nouns as an instrument.

  • at<n>+em<ins> ↔ atem
  • gin<n>+em<ins> ↔ ginem

The suffix « -far » (sometimes « -bar ») occurs on nouns as comitative.

  • uwa<n>+far<com> ↔ uwafar
  • je<n>+bar<com> ↔ jebar
  • Korano<n>+far<com> ↔ Koranofar

The suffix « -bara » indicates a special form of accompanying relationship between a noun and a pronoun. It carries the meaning 'to have,' as in "I have a daughter.'

  • yafontoi<n>+bara<relational> ↔ yafontoibara
  • gwora<n>+bara<relational> ↔ gworabara

The suffix « -mana » occurs on nouns as a possessor.

  • Korano<n>+mana<pos> ↔ Koranomana
  • uwa<n>+mana<pos> ↔ uwamana

If the possessor precedes the item it possesses, the suffix « -em » is used instead.

  • Korano<n>+em<pos> ↔ Koranoem

Verbs

Number

Intransitive verbs agree with the subject for dual number by adding the pluralizer word «ge» before the verb.

  • jila<v><iv><du> ↔ ge jila
  • sofwa<v><iv><du> ↔ ge sofwa
  • nasona<v><iv><du> ↔ ge nasona
  • fina<v><iv><du> ↔ ge fina

For plurals 4 examples are given, but the pattern isn't clear.

  • jila<v><iv><pl> ↔ ge jalbili
  • sofwa<v><iv><pl> ↔ ge sofwabili
  • nasona<v><iv><pl> ↔ ge nasbawena
  • fina<v><iv><pl> ↔ ge fibili

Transitive verbs mark the number of the object.

In dual, the ending appears to be «-sona» for verbs ending in «-(b)ana», which is sometimes accompanied by a vowel change in the stem. There is not enough data to find a pattern for other types of verbs.

  • damtana<v><tv><du> ↔ domsona
  • saftana<v><tv><du> ↔ sofsona
  • nasbana<v><tv><du> ↔ nasona
  • telbese<v><tv><du> ↔ telmisi
  • wirusu<v><tv><du> ↔ wirsosa

Plural is again difficult to make out.

  • damtana<v><tv><pl> ↔ damtabili
  • saftana<v><tv><pl> ↔ saftabana
  • nasbana<v><tv><pl> ↔ nasbabili
  • telbese<v><tv><pl> ↔ telbebesi
  • wirusu<v><tv><pl> ↔ wirtababisi

Gender

Many verbs agree with the gender of the object. Some these have a regular suffix alteration between «-bana» and «-bili».

  • sarbana<v><tv><f> ↔ sarbili
  • eyebana<v><tv><f> ↔ eyebili
  • gwebana<v><tv><f> ↔ gwebili

Others undergo stem changes. Some of these are very similar to the suffix alteration.

  • gerbana<v><tv><f> ↔ golbili

Whereas others (those ending in «-tana», it seems) change the first syllable and change the suffix to «-ola».

  • damtana<v><tv><f> ↔ domola
  • saftana<v><tv><f> ↔ sofola

Distance

When the action takes place far away, the infix «-tet-» is inserted before the final syllable. If the verb ends in «-tena» the result is «-tetna», otherwise the «n» is doubled and «-tet-» is inserted between them.

  • disultena<v><tv><dst> ↔ disultetna
  • gwerana<v><tv><dst> ↔ gwerantetna