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Revision as of 16:10, 13 February 2018 by Dswanso1 (talk | contribs) (begin adding forms of give)

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(further formatting later)


Nouns occurring as the subject of a sentence typically receive the suffix «-na». However, not every noun receives this inflection.

Consider the following examples where subjects receive the suffix «-na»

  • bangge<n><subj> ↔ banggena

Locational suffixes « -ap » "towards" and « -wer » "away from" occur on nouns.

  • jina<n>+ap<post> ↔ jinap
  • jina<n>+wer<post> ↔ jinawer

When the direction irrelevant, either may be used.

  • sita<n>+ap<post> ↔ sitap
  • sita<n>+wer<post> ↔ sitawer

The suffix « -yan » sometimes occurs on nouns in non-transitive clauses and is used to negate the clause.

  • tane<n>+yan<neg> ↔ taneyan
  • bwernabar<n>+bwernabar<neg> ↔ bwernabaryan

The suffix « -em » occurs on nouns as an instrument.

  • at<n>+em<ins> ↔ atem
  • gin<n>+em<ins> ↔ ginem

The suffix « -far » (sometimes « -bar ») occurs on nouns as comitative.

  • uwa<n>+far<com> ↔ uwafar
  • je<n>+bar<com> ↔ jebar
  • Korano<n>+far<com> ↔ Koranofar

The suffix « -bara » indicates a special form of accompanying relationship between a noun and a pronoun. It carries the meaning 'to have,' as in "I have a daughter.'

  • yafontoi<n>+bara<relational> ↔ yafontoibara
  • gwora<n>+bara<relational> ↔ gworabara

The suffix « -mana » occurs on nouns as a possessor.

  • Korano<n>+mana<pos> ↔ Koranomana
  • uwa<n>+mana<pos> ↔ uwamana

If the possessor precedes the item it possesses, the suffix « -em » is used instead.

  • Korano<n>+em<pos> ↔ Koranoem



Intransitive verbs agree with the subject for dual number by adding the pluralizer word «ge» before the verb.

  • jila<v><iv><du> ↔ ge jila
  • sofwa<v><iv><du> ↔ ge sofwa
  • nasona<v><iv><du> ↔ ge nasona
  • fina<v><iv><du> ↔ ge fina

For plurals 4 examples are given, but the pattern isn't clear.

  • jila<v><iv><pl> ↔ ge jalbili
  • sofwa<v><iv><pl> ↔ ge sofwabili
  • nasona<v><iv><pl> ↔ ge nasbawena
  • fina<v><iv><pl> ↔ ge fibili

Transitive verbs mark the number of the object.

In dual, the ending appears to be «-sona» for verbs ending in «-(b)ana», which is sometimes accompanied by a vowel change in the stem. There is not enough data to find a pattern for other types of verbs.

  • damtana<v><tv><du> ↔ domsona
  • saftana<v><tv><du> ↔ sofsona
  • nasbana<v><tv><du> ↔ nasona
  • telbese<v><tv><du> ↔ telmisi
  • wirusu<v><tv><du> ↔ wirsosa

Plural is again difficult to make out.

  • damtana<v><tv><pl> ↔ damtabili
  • saftana<v><tv><pl> ↔ saftabana
  • nasbana<v><tv><pl> ↔ nasbabili
  • telbese<v><tv><pl> ↔ telbebesi
  • wirusu<v><tv><pl> ↔ wirtababisi


Many verbs agree with the gender of the object. Some these have a regular suffix alteration between «-bana» and «-bili».

  • sarbana<v><tv><f> ↔ sarbili
  • eyebana<v><tv><f> ↔ eyebili
  • gwebana<v><tv><f> ↔ gwebili

Others undergo stem changes. Some of these are very similar to the suffix alteration.

  • gerbana<v><tv><f> ↔ golbili

Whereas others (those ending in «-tana», it seems) change the first syllable and change the suffix to «-ola».

  • damtana<v><tv><f> ↔ domola
  • saftana<v><tv><f> ↔ sofola


When the action takes place far away, the infix «-tet-» is inserted before the final syllable. If the verb ends in «-tena» the result is «-tetna», otherwise the «n» is doubled and «-tet-» is inserted between them.

  • disultena<v><tv><dst> ↔ disultetna
  • gwerana<v><tv><dst> ↔ gwerantetna


Since verbs are really messy and the grammar documentation is minimal, here's conjugations to "to give", for which the dictionary lists the root as "gubana" or "gobali", for the male and female versions, respectively.

  • gubana<v><tv><prs><sg><sun> ↔ gulbana
  • gubana<v><tv><pst><sg><sun> ↔ gulbanant
  • gubana<v><tv><fut><sg><sun> ↔ gulbafa

1 19. sunlight gulbana gulbanant gulbafa darkness gulbasa gulbafant gubafa 21g. sunlight terbene terbenent terbefe darkness terbese terbefent terbefe 31g. sunlight kitobana kitulbanant kitobafo darkness kitobasa kitulbafant kitobafo Entries for the Berik verb 'to give' (to a female) Present ~ Future llg. sunlight gobili golbilint golbifi darkness gobisi golbifint golbifi 21g. sunlight terbili terbilint terbifi darkness terbese terbefint terbifi 31g. sunlight kitobili kitulbilint kitulbifi darkness kitobisi kitulbifint kitulbifi