Berik/Grammar

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Classes

The Grammatical Sketch lists the uninflectable closed classes as:

  • Response words ("yes", "no", "don't want") <resp>
  • Pseudo-Imperatives ("come", "watch out", but not related to the verbs) <psimp>
  • Exclamatory words ("(amazement)", "(pity)") <ij>
  • Interrogatives ("what", "who", "why") <itg>
  • Numerals (only "1", "2", "3", "4") <num>
  • Manner Adverbs ("also", "again", "already") <adv><man>
  • Temporals ("today", "yesterday", "tomorrow") <temp>
  • Locationals ("middle of", "on", "behind", it's unclear how these relate to prepositions) <locl>
  • Conjunctions ("and", "or", "then") <conj>

The inflectable classes are:

  • Nouns (below) <n>
  • Verbs (below) <v>
  • Pronouns (there should perhaps be a distinction between subject and non-subject pronouns) <prn>
  • Modifiers (adjectives, with regular derivation to adverbs) <adj>


Modifiers

Adjectives take the suffix « -sus » as an intensifier.

  • berbere<adj><int> ↔ berberesus
  • bukona<adj><int> ↔ bukonasus
  • kekelna<adj><int> ↔ kekelnasus
  • bijua<adj><int> ↔ bijuasus
  • ane<adj><int> ↔ anesus
  • baabeta<adj><int> ↔ baabetasus

Double intensification is marked with additional full reduplication of the root.

Adjectives are made into adverbs with the suffixes «-fer» and «-ber».

  • waakena<adj><advl> ↔ waakenfer
  • bastantoiya<adj><advl> ↔ bastantoifer
  • bijua<adj><advl> ↔ bijuaber

Adjectives are negated by the suffix «-yan».

  • unggwandusa<adj>+yan<neg> ↔ unggwandusayan
  • samem<adj>+yan<neg> ↔ samemyan

Pronouns

Direct object pronouns take «-s» or «-m» (apparently in free variation).

  • ai<prn><acc> ↔ as
  • ai<prn><acc> ↔ am

The dative case is marked with «-p».

  • ai<prn><dat> ↔ ap

The reflexive form of direct object pronouns is formed with the suffix «-nan».

  • ai<prn><acc><ref> ↔ anan

The comitative is «-bar».

  • je<prn><com> ↔ jebar

Pronoun can attach to the negative word «-yan».

  • ai<prn>+yan<neg> ↔ aiyan

Demonstratives are identical to 1st and 3rd person personal pronouns, and can take the suffix «-serem» to indicate "this one in particular".

  • ai<prn><dem><part> ↔ aiserem

Nouns

Nouns occurring as the subject of a sentence typically receive the suffix «-na». However, not every noun receives this inflection.

Consider the following examples where subjects receive the suffix «-na»

  • bangge<n><subj> ↔ banggena

Locational suffixes « -ap » "towards" and « -wer » "away from" occur on nouns.

  • jina<n>+ap<post> ↔ jinap
  • jina<n>+wer<post> ↔ jinawer

When the direction irrelevant, either may be used.

  • sita<n>+ap<post> ↔ sitap
  • sita<n>+wer<post> ↔ sitawer

The suffix « -yan » sometimes occurs on nouns in non-transitive clauses and is used to negate the clause.

  • tane<n>+yan<neg> ↔ taneyan
  • bwernabar<n>+yan<neg> ↔ bwernabaryan

The suffix « -em » occurs on nouns as an instrument.

  • at<n><ins> ↔ atem
  • gin<n><ins> ↔ ginem

Something's wrong here. Either do gin<n><ins> ↔ ginem or gin<n>>+em<post> ↔ ginem.

The suffix « -far » (sometimes « -bar ») occurs on nouns as comitative.

  • uwa<n><com> ↔ uwafar
  • Korano<n><com> ↔ Koranofar

Same here

The suffix « -bara » indicates a special form of accompanying relationship between a noun and a pronoun. It carries the meaning 'to have,' as in "I have a daughter.'

  • yafontoi<n><relational> ↔ yafontoibara
  • gwora<n><relational> ↔ gworabara

Same here

The suffix « -mana » occurs on nouns as a possessor.

  • Korano<n><pos> ↔ Koranomana
  • uwa<n><pos> ↔ uwamana

Same here

If the possessor precedes the item it possesses, the suffix « -em » is used instead.

  • Korano<n><pos> ↔ Koranoem

Same here

Verbs

It looks like you have enough data to get a good idea of what's going on. And you really need to figure it out.

Number

Intransitive verbs agree with the subject for dual number by adding the pluralizer word «ge» before the verb.

  • jila<v><iv><du> ↔ ge jila
  • sofwa<v><iv><du> ↔ ge sofwa
  • nasona<v><iv><du> ↔ ge nasona
  • fina<v><iv><du> ↔ ge fina

For plurals 4 examples are given, but the pattern isn't clear.

  • jila<v><iv><pl> ↔ ge jalbili
  • sofwa<v><iv><pl> ↔ ge sofwabili
  • nasona<v><iv><pl> ↔ ge nasbawena
  • fina<v><iv><pl> ↔ ge fibili

Transitive verbs mark the number of the object.

In dual, the ending appears to be «-sona» for verbs ending in «-(b)ana», which is sometimes accompanied by a vowel change in the stem. There is not enough data to find a pattern for other types of verbs.

  • damtana<v><tv><du> ↔ domsona
  • saftana<v><tv><du> ↔ sofsona
  • nasbana<v><tv><du> ↔ nasona
  • telbese<v><tv><du> ↔ telmisi
  • wirusu<v><tv><du> ↔ wirsosa

Plural is again difficult to make out.

  • damtana<v><tv><pl> ↔ damtabili
  • saftana<v><tv><pl> ↔ saftabana
  • nasbana<v><tv><pl> ↔ nasbabili
  • telbese<v><tv><pl> ↔ telbebesi
  • wirusu<v><tv><pl> ↔ wirtababisi

Gender

Many verbs agree with the gender of the object. Some these have a regular suffix alteration between «-bana» and «-bili».

  • sarbana<v><tv><f> ↔ sarbili
  • eyebana<v><tv><f> ↔ eyebili
  • gwebana<v><tv><f> ↔ gwebili

Others undergo stem changes. Some of these are very similar to the suffix alteration.

  • gerbana<v><tv><f> ↔ golbili

Whereas others (those ending in «-tana», it seems) change the first syllable and change the suffix to «-ola».

  • damtana<v><tv><f> ↔ domola
  • saftana<v><tv><f> ↔ sofola

Distance

When the action takes place far away, the infix «-tet-» is inserted before the final syllable. If the verb ends in «-tena» the result is «-tetna», otherwise the «n» is doubled and «-tet-» is inserted between them.

  • disultena<v><tv><dst> ↔ disultetna
  • gwerana<v><tv><dst> ↔ gwerantetna

To Give

Since verbs are really messy and the grammar documentation is minimal, here's conjugations to "to give", for which the dictionary lists the root as "gubana" or "gobali", for the male and female versions, respectively. Forms are given for both genders in past, present, and future tenses, for singular, dual and plural object number, and with both sunlight and darkness forms.

  • gubana<v><tv><sg><lg><m><prs><light> ↔ gulbana
  • gubana<v><tv><sg><lg><m><pst><light> ↔ gulbanant
  • gubana<v><tv><sg><lg><m><prs><dark> ↔ gulbasa
  • gubana<v><tv><sg><lg><m><pst><dark> ↔ gulbafant
  • gubana<v><tv><sg><lg><m><fut> ↔ gulbafa
  • gubana<v><tv><du><lg><m><prs><light> ↔ terbene
  • gubana<v><tv><du><lg><m><pst><light> ↔ terbenent
  • gubana<v><tv><du><lg><m><prs><dark> ↔ terbese
  • gubana<v><tv><du><lg><m><pst><dark> ↔ terbefent
  • gubana<v><tv><du><lg><m><fut> ↔ terbefe
  • gubana<v><tv><pl><lg><m><prs><light> ↔ kitobana
  • gubana<v><tv><pl><lg><m><pst><light> ↔ kitulbanant
  • gubana<v><tv><pl><lg><m><prs><dark> ↔ kitobasa
  • gubana<v><tv><pl><lg><m><pst><dark> ↔ kitulbafant
  • gubana<v><tv><pl><lg><m><fut> ↔ kitobafo

And the feminine:

  • gubana<v><tv><sg><lg><f><prs><light> ↔ gobili
  • gubana<v><tv><sg><lg><f><pst><light> ↔ golbilint
  • gubana<v><tv><sg><lg><f><prs><dark> ↔ gobisi
  • gubana<v><tv><sg><lg><f><pst><dark> ↔ golbifint
  • gubana<v><tv><sg><lg><f><fut> ↔ golbifi
  • gubana<v><tv><du><lg><f><prs><light> ↔ terbili
  • gubana<v><tv><du><lg><f><pst><light> ↔ terbilint
  • gubana<v><tv><du><lg><f><prs><dark> ↔ terbese
  • gubana<v><tv><du><lg><f><pst><dark> ↔ terbefint
  • gubana<v><tv><du><lg><f><fut> ↔ terbifi
  • gubana<v><tv><pl><lg><f><prs><light> ↔ kitobili
  • gubana<v><tv><pl><lg><f><pst><light> ↔ kitulbilint
  • gubana<v><tv><pl><lg><f><prs><dark> ↔ kitobisi
  • gubana<v><tv><pl><lg><f><pst><dark> ↔ kitulbifint
  • gubana<v><tv><pl><lg><f><fut> ↔ kitulbifi

shouldn't these have the same lemma, and <m> and <f> tags?

To Tie

The dictionary documents "to tie up" as "fwirna."

  • fwirna<v><tv><sg><prs><light> ↔ fwirena
  • fwirna<v><tv><sg><prs><dark> ↔ fwiresa
  • fwirna<v><tv><du><prs><light> ↔ faarena
  • fwirna<v><tv><du><prs><dark> ↔ faaresa
  • fwirna<v><tv><pl><prs><light> ↔ taferebili
  • fwirna<v><tv><pl><prs><dark> ↔ taferebisi
  • fwirna<v><tv><sg><pst><light> ↔ fwirenant
  • fwirna<v><tv><sg><pst><dark> ↔ fwirenant
  • fwirna<v><tv><du><pst><light> ↔ faarefant
  • fwirna<v><tv><du><pst><dark> ↔ faarenant
  • fwirna<v><tv><pl><pst><light> ↔ taferebilint
  • fwirna<v><tv><pl><pst><dark> ↔ taferebifint
  • fwirna<v><tv><sg><fut><light> ↔ fwirena
  • fwirna<v><tv><sg><fut><dark> ↔ fwiresa
  • fwirna<v><tv><du><fut><light> ↔ faarefa
  • fwirna<v><tv><du><fut><dark> ↔ faaresa
  • fwirna<v><tv><pl><fut><light> ↔ taferebifi
  • fwirna<v><tv><pl><fut><dark> ↔ taferebisi

To Place

The dictionary documents 'gwarantena' as 'to place'

  • gwarantena<v><tv><sg><prs><prx><low> ↔ gwerantena
  • gwarantena<v><tv><sg><prs><prx><high> ↔ gweransona
  • gwarantena<v><tv><du><prs><prx><low> ↔ tosontona
  • gwarantena<v><tv><du><prs><prx><high> ↔ tosonsona
  • gwarantena<v><tv><pl><prs><prx><low> ↔ bununtona
  • gwarantena<v><tv><pl><prs><prx><high> ↔ bununsona
  • gwarantena<v><tv><sg><prs><dst><low> ↔ gwerantetfa
  • gwarantena<v><tv><sg><prs><dst><high> ↔ gweranswetna
  • gwarantena<v><tv><du><prs><dst><low> ↔ tosontetfa
  • gwarantena<v><tv><du><prs><dst><high> ↔ tosonswetna
  • gwarantena<v><tv><pl><prs><dst><low> ↔ bununtetfa
  • gwarantena<v><tv><pl><prs><dst><high> ↔ bununswetna