Difference between revisions of "Biak/Grammar"

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(Verb Transitivity)
(Grammar Points)
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Intransitive verbs cannot appear with a direct object.
 
Intransitive verbs cannot appear with a direct object.
 +
Some intransitive verbs are used to express properties, which in many other languages are expressed by a separate class of adjectives.
  
 
frar (''run'')
 
frar (''run'')
 +
mran (''walk'')
 +
pyum (''good'')
 +
syuf (''cold'')
 +
sambern (''fast'')
  
 
=== Locative-existential clauses ===
 
=== Locative-existential clauses ===

Revision as of 14:57, 4 March 2021

Word Classes

  1. Nouns n
  2. Verbs v
  3. Pronouns prn
  4. Adverbs adv
  5. Prepositions pr
  6. Interjections ij
  7. Numerals num
  8. Conjunctions
  9. Topic markers
  10. Exclamations

Note the absence of adjectives in Biak

Grammar Points

Verb number/person inflection

Verbs combine with pronomial subject affixes (mainly prefixes, a few infixes) that express number and person of the subject. In addition to singular and plural, Biak also has a dual and a paucal. For 1st person dual and plural, Biak also distinguishes between inclusive and exclusive. There are at least three ways to combine verbs with pronomial affixes, and this is mainly determined by the beginning of the verb stem.

CC-initial:

Example: «srow» (meet)

srow<v><p1><sg> ↔ yasrow

srow<v><p2><sg> ↔ wasrow

srow<v><p3><sg> ↔ isrow

srow<v><p1><du><ex> ↔ nusrow

srow<v><p1><du><inc> ↔ kusrow

srow<v><p2><du> ↔ musrow

srow<v><p3><du> ↔ susrow

srow<v><p3><pc> ↔ skosrow

srow<v><p1><pl><exc> ↔ nkosrow

srow<v><p1><pl><inc> ↔ kosrow

srow<v><p2><pl> ↔ mkosrow

srow<v><p3><pl><an> ↔ sisrow

srow<v><p3><pl><inan> ↔ nasrow

(Add V-initial, CV-initial examples and CV special cases)

V-initial:

Example: «arok» (be straight)

arok<v><p1><sg> ↔ yarok

arok<v><p2><sg> ↔ warok

arok<v><p3><sg> ↔ darok

arok<v><p1><du><ex> ↔ nuyarok

arok<v><p1><du><inc> ↔ kuyarok

arok<v><p2><du> ↔ muyarok

arok<v><p3><du> ↔ suyarok

arok<v><p3><pc> ↔ skarok

arok<v><p1><pl><exc> ↔ nkarok

arok<v><p1><pl><inc> ↔ karok

arok<v><p2><pl> ↔ mkarok

arok<v><p3><pl><an> ↔ sarok

arok<v><p3><pl><inan> ↔ narok

Noun Specificity

Nonspecificity is used to refer to entities that do not yet exist in this world. It is marked by the use of nonspecific articles -o for singular and -no for plural.

yuk<n><sg><nonSP> ↔ yuko

yuk<n><sg><SPC> ↔ yukya

Possession (Alienable/Inalienable)

Biak makes a formal distinction between alienable and inalienable (mainly restricted to certain body parts, kinship terms, and locational nouns)

spellrelax

Partial Reduplicaton

Verb Transitivity

Verbs can be split into 3 groups, transitive, S=O ambitransitive, and transitive.

Intransitive Verbs

Intransitive verbs cannot appear with a direct object. Some intransitive verbs are used to express properties, which in many other languages are expressed by a separate class of adjectives.

frar (run) mran (walk) pyum (good) syuf (cold) sambern (fast)

Locative-existential clauses

Demonstratives

Pronouns