Difference between revisions of "Biak/Grammar"

From LING073
Jump to: navigation, search
(Inalienable Possession)
(Inalienable Possession)
Line 247: Line 247:
 
!Inalienable root !! compound  !! refers to !! meaning of second member as free word
 
!Inalienable root !! compound  !! refers to !! meaning of second member as free word
 
|-
 
|-
|we ''leg'' || wemin || entire leg || min = 'member of a group'
+
|we "''leg''" || wemin || entire leg || min = 'member of a group'
 
|-
 
|-
 
|↑ || wepur || knee || pur = 'back'
 
|↑ || wepur || knee || pur = 'back'
Line 257: Line 257:
 
|↑ || webon || calf || bon = 'fruit','hill'
 
|↑ || webon || calf || bon = 'fruit','hill'
 
|-
 
|-
|sne ''belly area'' || snewar || belly, between hips and ribs || wár = 'water'
+
|sne "''belly area''" || snewar || belly, between hips and ribs || wár = 'water'
 
|-
 
|-
 
|↑ || snepum || naval || pum = 'that which comes out'
 
|↑ || snepum || naval || pum = 'that which comes out'
 
|-
 
|-
|sva ''mouth'' || svadon || the entire mouth || do = inside
+
|sva "''mouth''" || svadon || the entire mouth || do = inside
 
|-
 
|-
 
|↑ || svardip || lip || not attested
 
|↑ || svardip || lip || not attested
 
|-
 
|-
|mka ''eye'' || mkamor || area around eye, specifically eyeball || mor = 'seed', 'tuber'
+
|mka "''eye''" || mkamor || area around eye, specifically eyeball || mor = 'seed', 'tuber'
 
|-
 
|-
 
|↑ || mkabir mka(bi)biren || eyelid || not attested
 
|↑ || mkabir mka(bi)biren || eyelid || not attested

Revision as of 07:46, 5 March 2021

Word Classes

  1. Nouns n
  2. Verbs v
  3. Pronouns prn
  4. Adverbs adv
  5. Prepositions pr
  6. Interjections ij
  7. Numerals num
  8. Conjunctions
  9. Topic markers
  10. Exclamations

Note the absence of adjectives in Biak

Grammar Points

Verb number/person inflection

Verbs combine with pronomial subject affixes (mainly prefixes, a few infixes) that express number and person of the subject. In addition to singular and plural, Biak also has a dual and a paucal. For 1st person dual and plural, Biak also distinguishes between inclusive and exclusive. There are at least three ways to combine verbs with pronomial affixes, and this is mainly determined by the beginning of the verb stem.

CC-initial

Example: «srow» (meet)

srow<v><p1><sg> ↔ yasrow

srow<v><p2><sg> ↔ wasrow

srow<v><p3><sg> ↔ isrow

srow<v><p1><du><ex> ↔ nusrow

srow<v><p1><du><inc> ↔ kusrow

srow<v><p2><du> ↔ musrow

srow<v><p3><du> ↔ susrow

srow<v><p3><pc> ↔ skosrow

srow<v><p1><pl><exc> ↔ nkosrow

srow<v><p1><pl><inc> ↔ kosrow

srow<v><p2><pl> ↔ mkosrow

srow<v><p3><pl><an> ↔ sisrow

srow<v><p3><pl><inan> ↔ nasrow

V-initial

Example: «arok» (be straight)

arok<v><p1><sg> ↔ yarok

arok<v><p2><sg> ↔ warok

arok<v><p3><sg> ↔ darok

arok<v><p1><du><ex> ↔ nuyarok

arok<v><p1><du><inc> ↔ kuyarok

arok<v><p2><du> ↔ muyarok

arok<v><p3><du> ↔ suyarok

arok<v><p3><pc> ↔ skarok

arok<v><p1><pl><exc> ↔ nkarok

arok<v><p1><pl><inc> ↔ karok

arok<v><p2><pl> ↔ mkarok

arok<v><p3><pl><an> ↔ sarok

arok<v><p3><pl><inan> ↔ narok

CV-initial

Note that the pattern for CV-initial verbs is not so predictable. For some words, the inflection is determined lexically; for instance, «so» (throw) is inflected according to the CV-pattern, while «so» (follow) is inflected according to the CC-pattern.

Example: «so» (throw)

so<v><p1><sg> ↔ yaso

so<v><p2><sg> ↔ swo

so<v><p3><sg> ↔ syo

so<v><p1><du><ex> ↔ nuso

so<v><p1><du><inc> ↔ kuso

so<v><p2><du> ↔ muso

so<v><p3><du> ↔ suso

so<v><p3><pc> ↔ skoso

so<v><p1><pl><exc> ↔ nkoso

so<v><p1><pl><inc> ↔ koso

so<v><p2><pl> ↔ mkoso

so<v><p3><pl><an> ↔ siso

so<v><p3><pl><inan> ↔ naso

Givenness

Givenness is marked by «an», and the allomorph «nan». «an» is used if the preceding word ends in a consonant, while «nan» is used after vowels.

rum<n> an<det><p3><sg> ↔ rum anya

kpu<n> an<det><p3><sg> ↔ kpu anya

waw<n> an<det><p3><sg> ↔ waw anya

ikoi<n> an<det><p3><sg> ↔ ikoi nanya

Noun Specificity

Nonspecificity is used to refer to entities that do not yet exist in this world. It is marked by the use of nonspecific articles -o for singular and -no for plural.

yuk<n><nspc><sg> ↔ yuko

yuk<n><nspc><pl> ↔ yukno


Specificity is marked with pronominal articles attached to the end of a noun phrase. They are closely related to free personal pronouns and pronominal affixes:

free personal pronoun pronominal article
1SG aya  ?/=ya-i
2SG aw aw-ya/=aw-i
3SG i =ya/=i
1DU.INC ku =ku-ya/=ku-i
1DU.EX nu =nu-ya/=nu-i
2DU mu =mu-ya/=mu-i
3DU su =su-ya/=su-i
3PC sko =sko-ya/=sko-i
1PL.INC ko =ko-ya/=ko-i
1PL.EX inko =inko-ya/inko-i
2PL mko =mko-ya/mko-i
3PL.AN si =s-ya/=s-i
3PL.INAN na =na

Wardo<n><spc><p1><pl><ex> ↔ Wardoinkoya

yuk<n><spc><p1><sg> ↔ yukya

The pronominal articles are found in the final position of the noun phrase (not necessarily the noun itself):

for<n> ba<rel><spc><p3><sg> ↔ for vebaya

Complex Articles

Biak also has complex articles that act as their own words, indicating givenness, number/gender/specificity,

Possession (Alienable/Inalienable)

Biak makes a formal distinction between alienable and inalienable (mainly restricted to certain body parts, kinship terms, and locational nouns) possession.

Alienable Possession

The possessive pronominals consist of the possessive formative ve inflected for person, number, and gender of the possessor, and the article closing off related to the (person,) number, and gender of the possessed. This table illustrates the construction of possessive pronominals.

Basic Possessive Pronominals
Possessor↓ Possessum→ SG DU PC PL.AN PL.INAN
1SG (a)ye=d-i/=d-ya (a)ye=su-ya/-i (a)ye=sko-ya/-i (a)ye=s-ya/-i (a)ye=na
2SG be=d-i/=d-ya be-=su-ya/-i be=sko-ya/-i be=s-ya/-i be=na
3SG v<y>e=d-i/=d-ya v<y>e=su-ya/-i v<y>e =sko-ya/-i v<y>e =s-ya/-i v<y>e =na
1DU.INC Ku-ve=d-i/=d-ya ku-ve=su-ya/-i ku-ve=sko-ya/-i ku-ve=s-ya/-i ku-ve=na
1DU.EX nu-ve=d-i/=d-ya nu-ve=su-ya/-i nu-ve=sko-ya/-i nu-ve=s-ya/-i nu-ve=na
2DU mu-ve=d-i/=d-ya mu-ve=su-ya/-i mu-ve=sko-ya/-i mu-ve=s-ya/-i mu-ve=na
3DU su-ve=d-i/=d-ya su-ve=su-ya/-i su-ve=sko-ya/-i su-ve=s-ya/-i s su-ve=na
1PC sko-ve=d-i/=d-ya sko-ve=su-ya/-i sko-ve=sko-ya/-i sko-ve=s-ya/-i sko-ve=na
1PL.INC ko-ve=d-i/=d-ya ko-ve=su-ya/-i ko-ve=sko-ya/-i ko-ve=s-ya/-i ko-ve=na
1PL.EX (i)nko-ve=d-i/=d-ya (i)nko-ve=su-ya/-i i (i)nko-ve=sko-ya/-i (i)nko-ve=s-ya/-i (i)nko-ve=na
2PL mko-ve=d-i/=d-ya mko-ve=su-ya/-i mko-ve=sko-ya/-i mko-ve=s-ya/-i mko-ve=na
3PL.AN se=d-i/=d-ya se=su-ya/-i se=sko-ya/-i se=s-ya/-i se=na
3PL.INAN nbe=d-i/d-ya nbe=su-ya/-i nbe=sko-ya/-i nbe=s-ya/-i nbe=na

The following example indicates that the possessor is 1SG (first row) and the possessed is 3SG (first column):

romawa<n> det<det><pos><p3><px1sg><spc> ↔ romawa yedya

This example indicates that the possessor is 3S (3rd row) and the possessed is 3SG (1st column):

ikák<n> an<det><dem><p3><sg><spc><prox> snonsnon<n> det<det><pos><px3sg><spc> Kormsamba<ant> ↔ ikák anine snosnon vyedya Kormsamba

This example indicates that the possessor is 1PL.EX (10th row) and the possessed is 3SG (first column):

rum<n> det<det><pos><pl><spc> clause<rel><loc> an<det><dem><p1> ↔ rum inkove vero dine anya

This example indicates that the possessor is 3SG (3rd row) and the possessed is 3PL.AN (4th column):

vín<n> an<det><dem><p3><pl><sp> det<det><pos><p3><pxpl><spc> ↔ vín anya vyesya

This example indicates that the possessor is 3SG (3rd row) and the possessed is 3PL.AN (4th column):

romawa<n> inai<n> Manseren<n> det<det><pos><p3><pxpl><spc> ↔  romawa inai Manseren vyesya

Inalienable Possession

Inalienable morphology is found with kinship terms, several anatomy/body parts, locational nouns, and some nouns referring to a part of a whole. The alienable construction allows for both possessed-possessor and possessor-possessed order, whereas the inalienable form does not. The inalienable construction allows for the possessor-possessed order. This is illustrated below for alienable possession:

Frans<ant> det<det><pos><p3><px3sg><spc> ↔ Frans kmari

Included below is a section of Alienable nouns referring to bodyparts, formed on the basis of inalienable roots.

Inalienable root compound refers to meaning of second member as free word
we "leg" wemin entire leg min = 'member of a group'
wepur knee pur = 'back'
wempin toe not attested
wevam downside of foot = sole bám = 'wall', 'slope'
webon calf bon = 'fruit','hill'
sne "belly area" snewar belly, between hips and ribs wár = 'water'
snepum naval pum = 'that which comes out'
sva "mouth" svadon the entire mouth do = inside
svardip lip not attested
mka "eye" mkamor area around eye, specifically eyeball mor = 'seed', 'tuber'
mkabir mka(bi)biren eyelid not attested
mkabei area directly above eye bei = 'shell'

spellrelax

Partial Reduplicaton

Locative-existential clauses

Demonstratives

Pronouns