Difference between revisions of "Biak and English/Contrastive grammar"

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(Possessives)
(Inalienable Possession)
 
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==bhw-eng Tests==
 
==bhw-eng Tests==
=== article comes after the noun ===
+
=== Reordering of Article and Noun ===
 +
Biak sentences order the noun before the article, opposite of English.
 +
 
 
* {{transferTest|bhw|eng|ras anya|the day}}  
 
* {{transferTest|bhw|eng|ras anya|the day}}  
 
*: {{transferMorphTest|bhw|eng|ras{{tag|n}} i{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|spc}}|the{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}}{{tag|sp}}}} day{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}
 
*: {{transferMorphTest|bhw|eng|ras{{tag|n}} i{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|spc}}|the{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}}{{tag|sp}}}} day{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}
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*: {{transferMorphTest|bhw|eng|rum{{tag|n}} na{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|pl}}{{tag|inan}}{{tag|spc}}+ne{{tag|det}}{{tag|dem}}|these{{tag|det}}{{tag|dem}}{{tag|pl}}}} houses{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}
 
*: {{transferMorphTest|bhw|eng|rum{{tag|n}} na{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|pl}}{{tag|inan}}{{tag|spc}}+ne{{tag|det}}{{tag|dem}}|these{{tag|det}}{{tag|dem}}{{tag|pl}}}} houses{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}
  
=== verb tenses ===
+
=== Verb Tenses ===
 +
Verb tenses are not indicated in Biak, and in general one cannot determine whether a verb is past or present tense. The future tense is typically indicated with the word ''nari'' which precedes the verb. We will default to marking the verbs as past tense.
  
 
* {{transferTest|bhw|eng|rusa anine dores|this deer stood}}  
 
* {{transferTest|bhw|eng|rusa anine dores|this deer stood}}  
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*: {{transferMorphTest|bhw|eng|ikak{{tag|n}} i{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|spc}}{{tag|giv}}+yasne{{tag|det}}{{tag|dem}} nas{{tag|v}}{{tag|tv}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|sg}} i{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|sg}}|this{{tag|det}}{{tag|dem}}{{tag|sg}} snake{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}} up here{{tag|adv}} smell{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|past}} prpers{{tag|prn}}{{tag|obj}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|nt}}{{tag|sg}}}}
 
*: {{transferMorphTest|bhw|eng|ikak{{tag|n}} i{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|spc}}{{tag|giv}}+yasne{{tag|det}}{{tag|dem}} nas{{tag|v}}{{tag|tv}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|sg}} i{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|sg}}|this{{tag|det}}{{tag|dem}}{{tag|sg}} snake{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}} up here{{tag|adv}} smell{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|past}} prpers{{tag|prn}}{{tag|obj}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|nt}}{{tag|sg}}}}
  
=== indicating demonstrative from ending ===
+
=== Demonstrative articles ===
 +
Demonstratives in Biak are indicated with the suffixes ''ne'', ''ya'', or ''wa'' on the complex article.
 +
 
 
* {{transferTest|bhw|eng|mnu ine|this village}}  
 
* {{transferTest|bhw|eng|mnu ine|this village}}  
 
*: {{transferMorphTest|bhw|eng|mnu{{tag|n}} i{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|spc}}+ne{{tag|det}}{{tag|dem}}|this{{tag|det}}{{tag|dem}}{{tag|sg}}}} village{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}
 
*: {{transferMorphTest|bhw|eng|mnu{{tag|n}} i{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|spc}}+ne{{tag|det}}{{tag|dem}}|this{{tag|det}}{{tag|dem}}{{tag|sg}}}} village{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}
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*: {{transferMorphTest|bhw|eng|rusa{{tag|n}} i{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|spc}}+ne{{tag|det}}{{tag|dem}}|this{{tag|det}}{{tag|dem}}{{tag|sg}}}} deer{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}
 
*: {{transferMorphTest|bhw|eng|rusa{{tag|n}} i{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|spc}}+ne{{tag|det}}{{tag|dem}}|this{{tag|det}}{{tag|dem}}{{tag|sg}}}} deer{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}
  
=== locative ===
+
=== Locative Endings ===
 +
Location of the noun can be indicated by an ending added to the complex article in Biak, translating to an adverb in English.
  
 
* {{transferTest|bhw|eng|ikak aniyasne|this snake up here}}
 
* {{transferTest|bhw|eng|ikak aniyasne|this snake up here}}
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=== Plurals ===
 
=== Plurals ===
  
If a noun appears with an article, the number of the article indicates whether the noun is singular or plural.  
+
If a noun appears with an article, the number of the article indicates whether the noun is singular or plural.
 +
The pronominal article can also be a suffix of the noun.
  
 
* {{transferTest|bhw|eng|rum nane|these houses}}  
 
* {{transferTest|bhw|eng|rum nane|these houses}}  
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*: {{transferMorphTest|bhw|eng|ina{{tag|n}} anskoi{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|pc}}{{tag|spc}}{{tag|giv}}+ne{{tag|det}}{{tag|dem}}|this{{tag|det}}{{tag|dem}}{{tag|pl}}}} three{{tag|num}}{{tag|pl}} girl{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}
 
*: {{transferMorphTest|bhw|eng|ina{{tag|n}} anskoi{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|pc}}{{tag|spc}}{{tag|giv}}+ne{{tag|det}}{{tag|dem}}|this{{tag|det}}{{tag|dem}}{{tag|pl}}}} three{{tag|num}}{{tag|pl}} girl{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}
  
=== subject is implicit ===
+
=== Implicit Subject ===
 +
For Biak sentences lacking an explicit subject, a pronoun is assumed that agrees with the number of the verb.
 +
 
 
* {{transferTest|bhw|eng|imnai kwar|it stopped already}}  
 
* {{transferTest|bhw|eng|imnai kwar|it stopped already}}  
 
*: {{transferMorphTest|bhw|eng|mnai{{tag|v}}{{tag|iv}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|sg}} kwar{{tag|adv}}|it/prpers{{tag|prn}}{{tag|subj}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|nt}}{{tag|sg}} stop{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|past}} already{{tag|adv}}}}
 
*: {{transferMorphTest|bhw|eng|mnai{{tag|v}}{{tag|iv}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|sg}} kwar{{tag|adv}}|it/prpers{{tag|prn}}{{tag|subj}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|nt}}{{tag|sg}} stop{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|past}} already{{tag|adv}}}}
  
 
* {{transferTest|bhw|eng|nggokain|we sit}}  
 
* {{transferTest|bhw|eng|nggokain|we sit}}  
*: {{transferMorphTest|bhw|eng|kain{{tag|v}}{{tag|iv}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|pl}}{{tag|ex}}|we/prpers{{tag|prn}}{{tag|subj}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|mf}}{{tag|pl}} sit{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|pres}}}}
+
*: {{transferMorphTest|bhw|eng|kain{{tag|v}}{{tag|iv}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|pl}}{{tag|ex}}|prpers{{tag|prn}}{{tag|subj}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|mf}}{{tag|pl}} sit{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|pres}}}}
  
 
=== Possessives ===
 
=== Possessives ===
 +
 +
==== Alienable Possession ====
 
Alienable possession is indicated by a determiner in Biak following the possessum and the possessor noun phrase, although they can come in either order. In English, the possessive is indicated by an "'s" on the possessor or a possessive personal pronoun.
 
Alienable possession is indicated by a determiner in Biak following the possessum and the possessor noun phrase, although they can come in either order. In English, the possessive is indicated by an "'s" on the possessor or a possessive personal pronoun.
  
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* {{transferTest|bhw|eng|snewar vyedya|his belly}}  
 
* {{transferTest|bhw|eng|snewar vyedya|his belly}}  
 
*: {{transferMorphTest|bhw|eng|snewar{{tag|n}} det{{tag|det}}{{tag|pos}}{{tag|px3sg}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|spc}}|prpers{{tag|det}}{{tag|pos}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|m}}{{tag|sg}} belly{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}}}
 
*: {{transferMorphTest|bhw|eng|snewar{{tag|n}} det{{tag|det}}{{tag|pos}}{{tag|px3sg}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|spc}}|prpers{{tag|det}}{{tag|pos}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|m}}{{tag|sg}} belly{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}}}
 +
 +
==== Inalienable Possession ====
 +
* {{transferTest|bhw|eng|svamri| your mouth}}
 +
*: {{transferMorphTest|bhw|eng|sva{{tag|n}}{{tag|pos}}{{tag|px2sg}}{{tag|sg}}|prpers{{tag|det}}{{tag|pos}}{{tag|p2}}{{tag|mf}}{{tag|sp}} mouth{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}}}
 +
* {{transferTest|bhw|eng|wesi| my legs}}
 +
*: {{transferMorphTest|bhw|eng|we{{tag|n}}{{tag|pos}}{{tag|px1sg}}{{tag|du}}|prpers{{tag|det}}{{tag|pos}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|mf}}{{tag|sg}} leg{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}}}
  
  
 
[[Category:Sp21_ContrastiveGrammars ]][[Category:Biak]]
 
[[Category:Sp21_ContrastiveGrammars ]][[Category:Biak]]

Latest revision as of 14:09, 13 May 2021

bhw-eng Tests

Reordering of Article and Noun

Biak sentences order the noun before the article, opposite of English.

  • (bhw) ras anya → (eng) the day
    (bhw) ras<n> i<prn><pers><p3><sg><spc> → (eng) the<det><def><sp> day<n><sg>
  • (bhw) rum nane → (eng) these houses
    (bhw) rum<n> na<prn><pers><p3><pl><inan><spc>+ne<det><dem> → (eng) these<det><dem><pl> houses<n><pl>

Verb Tenses

Verb tenses are not indicated in Biak, and in general one cannot determine whether a verb is past or present tense. The future tense is typically indicated with the word nari which precedes the verb. We will default to marking the verbs as past tense.

  • (bhw) rusa anine dores → (eng) this deer stood
    (bhw) rusa<n> i<prn><pers><p3><sg><spc>+ne<det><dem> ores<v><iv><p3><sg> → (eng) this<det><dem><sg> deer<n><sg> stand<vblex><past>
  • (bhw) Ikak aniyasne nyas i → (eng) This snake up here smelled it
    (bhw) ikak<n> i<prn><pers><p3><sg><spc><giv>+yasne<det><dem> nas<v><tv><p3><sg> i<prn><pers><p3><sg> → (eng) this<det><dem><sg> snake<n><sg> up here<adv> smell<vblex><past> prpers<prn><obj><p3><nt><sg>

Demonstrative articles

Demonstratives in Biak are indicated with the suffixes ne, ya, or wa on the complex article.

  • (bhw) mnu ine → (eng) this village
    (bhw) mnu<n> i<prn><pers><p3><sg><spc>+ne<det><dem> → (eng) this<det><dem><sg> village<n><sg>
  • (bhw) rusa anine → (eng) this deer
    (bhw) rusa<n> i<prn><pers><p3><sg><spc>+ne<det><dem> → (eng) this<det><dem><sg> deer<n><sg>

Locative Endings

Location of the noun can be indicated by an ending added to the complex article in Biak, translating to an adverb in English.

  • (bhw) ikak aniyasne → (eng) this snake up here
    (bhw) ikak<n> i<prn><pers><p3><sg><spc><giv>+yasne<det><dem> → (eng) this<det><dem><sg> snake<n><sg> up here<adv>

Plurals

If a noun appears with an article, the number of the article indicates whether the noun is singular or plural. The pronominal article can also be a suffix of the noun.

  • (bhw) rum nane → (eng) these houses
    (bhw) rum<n> na<prn><pers><p3><pl><inan><spc>+ne<det><dem> → (eng) this<det><dem><pl> houses<n><pl>
  • (bhw) ina anskoine → (eng) these three girls
    (bhw) ina<n> anskoi<prn><pers><p3><pc><spc><giv>+ne<det><dem> → (eng) this<det><dem><pl> three<num><pl> girl<n><pl>

Implicit Subject

For Biak sentences lacking an explicit subject, a pronoun is assumed that agrees with the number of the verb.

  • (bhw) imnai kwar → (eng) it stopped already
    (bhw) mnai<v><iv><p3><sg> kwar<adv> → (eng) it/prpers<prn><subj><p3><nt><sg> stop<vblex><past> already<adv>
  • (bhw) nggokain → (eng) we sit
    (bhw) kain<v><iv><p1><pl><ex> → (eng) prpers<prn><subj><p1><mf><pl> sit<vblex><pres>

Possessives

Alienable Possession

Alienable possession is indicated by a determiner in Biak following the possessum and the possessor noun phrase, although they can come in either order. In English, the possessive is indicated by an "'s" on the possessor or a possessive personal pronoun.

  • (bhw) ikak anine snonsnon vyedya → (eng) this snake's name
    (bhw) ikak<n> i<prn><pers><p3><sg><spc><giv>+ne<det><dem> snonsnon<n> det<det><pos><px3sg><sg><spc> → (eng) the<det><def><sp> snake<n><sg>'s<gen> name<n><sg>
  • (bhw) snewar vyedya → (eng) his belly
    (bhw) snewar<n> det<det><pos><px3sg><sg><spc> → (eng) prpers<det><pos><p3><m><sg> belly<n><sg>

Inalienable Possession

  • (bhw) svamri → (eng) your mouth
    (bhw) sva<n><pos><px2sg><sg> → (eng) prpers<det><pos><p2><mf><sp> mouth<n><sg>
  • (bhw) wesi → (eng) my legs
    (bhw) we<n><pos><px1sg><du> → (eng) prpers<det><pos><p1><mf><sg> leg<n><pl>