Difference between revisions of "Central Kurdish and English/Contrastive Grammar"

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=== Verb Conjugation ===
 
=== Verb Conjugation ===
  
Sorani verbs get a set of suffixes at the end that tie back to the subject.
+
Sorani verbs get a set of suffixes at the end that tie back to the subject. This happens for both past and present verbs.
  
 
* {{transferTest|ckb|eng|من هاتم|I came}}
 
* {{transferTest|ckb|eng|من هاتم|I came}}
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Sorani Kurdish sentences follow an SOV pattern, meaning that the object precedes the verb phrase.
 
Sorani Kurdish sentences follow an SOV pattern, meaning that the object precedes the verb phrase.
 +
 +
* {{transferTest|ckb|eng|ئێمە نان ئەخۆین|We eat bread}}
 +
*: {{transferMorphTest|ckb|eng|ئێمە{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|pl}} نان{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}} خواردن{{tag|v}}{{tag|tv}}{{tag|npast}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|pl}}|We{{tag|prn}}{{tag|subj}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|mf}}{{tag|pl}}}} eat{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|pres}} bread{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}
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* {{transferTest|ckb|eng|ئێمە ئاو ئەهێنین|We bring water}}
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*: {{transferMorphTest|ckb|eng|ئێمە{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|pl}} ئاو{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}} هێنان{{tag|v}}{{tag|tv}}{{tag|npast}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|pl}}|We{{tag|prn}}{{tag|subj}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|mf}}{{tag|pl}}}} bring{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|pres}} water{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}
  
 
=== Verb Negation ===
 
=== Verb Negation ===
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* {{transferTest|ckb|eng|مەچۆ|Do not go}}
 
* {{transferTest|ckb|eng|مەچۆ|Do not go}}
 
*: {{transferMorphTest|ckb|eng|چوون{{tag|v}}{{tag|iv}}{{tag|imp}}{{tag|neg}}{{tag|p2}}{{tag|sg}}|do{{tag|vbdo}}{{tag|imp}} not{{tag|adv}} go{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|inf}}}}
 
*: {{transferMorphTest|ckb|eng|چوون{{tag|v}}{{tag|iv}}{{tag|imp}}{{tag|neg}}{{tag|p2}}{{tag|sg}}|do{{tag|vbdo}}{{tag|imp}} not{{tag|adv}} go{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|inf}}}}
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=== Izafa ===
 +
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The adj+noun pattern in English is manifested in Kurdish as noun+ی+adj.
 +
 +
* {{transferTest|ckb|eng|سەگێکی گەورە|a big dog}}
 +
*: {{transferMorphTest|ckb|eng|سەگ{{tag|n}}{{tag|ind}}{{tag|sg}}+ی{{tag|pr}} گەورە{{tag|adj}}|a{{tag|det}}{{tag|ind}}{{tag|sg}} big{{tag|adj}}{{tag|sint}} dog{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}}}
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 +
* {{transferTest|ckb|eng|رۆژێکی گەرمتر|a warmer day}}
 +
*: {{transferMorphTest|ckb|eng|رۆژ{{tag|n}}{{tag|ind}}{{tag|sg}}+ی{{tag|pr}} گەرم{{tag|adj}}{{tag|comp}}|a{{tag|det}}{{tag|ind}}{{tag|sg}} warm{{tag|adj}}{{tag|sint}}{{tag|comp}} day{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}}}

Latest revision as of 14:16, 6 May 2021


ckb-eng

Definiteness Marker

In Sorani Kurdish, definiteness is marked by a suffix at the end of a noun instead of a separate determiner.

  • (ckb) پیاوەکە → (eng) the man
    (ckb) پیاو<n><def><sg> → (eng) the<det><def><sp> man<n><sg>
  • (ckb) پیاوێک → (eng) a man
    (ckb) پیاو<n><ind><sg> → (eng) a<det><ind><sg> man<n><sg>
  • (ckb) سەگەکان → (eng) the dogs
    (ckb) سەگ<n><def><pl> → (eng) the<det><def><sp> dog<n><pl>
  • (ckb) سەگێک → (eng) a dog
    (ckb) سەگ<n><ind><sg> → (eng) a<det><ind><sp> dog<n><sg>

Verb Conjugation

Sorani verbs get a set of suffixes at the end that tie back to the subject. This happens for both past and present verbs.

  • (ckb) من هاتم → (eng) I came
    (ckb) من<prn><pers><p1><sg> هاتن<v><iv><past><p1><sg> → (eng) I<prn><subj><p1><mf><sg> came<vblex><past>
  • (ckb) ئێمە هاتین → (eng) We came
    (ckb) ئێمە<prn><pers><p1><pl> هاتن<v><iv><past><p1><pl> → (eng) We<prn><subj><p1><mf><pl> came<vblex><past>

Object Order

Sorani Kurdish sentences follow an SOV pattern, meaning that the object precedes the verb phrase.

  • (ckb) ئێمە نان ئەخۆین → (eng) We eat bread
    (ckb) ئێمە<prn><pers><p1><pl> نان<n><sg> خواردن<v><tv><npast><p1><pl> → (eng) We<prn><subj><p1><mf><pl> eat<vblex><pres> bread<n><sg>
  • (ckb) ئێمە ئاو ئەهێنین → (eng) We bring water
    (ckb) ئێمە<prn><pers><p1><pl> ئاو<n><sg> هێنان<v><tv><npast><p1><pl> → (eng) We<prn><subj><p1><mf><pl> bring<vblex><pres> water<n><sg>

Verb Negation

Sorani verbs are negated using a negation prefix. The prefixes are نە for past tense, نا for nonpast tense, and مە for imperative verbs.

  • (ckb) ئەو نەچوو → (eng) He did not go
    (ckb) ئەو<n><def><sg> چوون<v><iv><past><neg><p3><sg> → (eng) he<prn><subj><p3><m><sg> do<vaux><past> not<adv> go<vblex><inf>
  • (ckb) ئەو ناچێت → (eng) He is not going
    (ckb) ئەو<n><def><sg> چوون<v><iv><npast><neg><p3><sg> → (eng) he<prn><subj><p3><m><sg> be<vbser><pres><p3><sg> not<adv> go<vblex><ger>
  • (ckb) مەچۆ → (eng) Do not go
    (ckb) چوون<v><iv><imp><neg><p2><sg> → (eng) do<vbdo><imp> not<adv> go<vblex><inf>

Izafa

The adj+noun pattern in English is manifested in Kurdish as noun+ی+adj.

  • (ckb) سەگێکی گەورە → (eng) a big dog
    (ckb) سەگ<n><ind><sg><pr> گەورە<adj> → (eng) a<det><ind><sg> big<adj><sint> dog<n><sg>
  • (ckb) رۆژێکی گەرمتر → (eng) a warmer day
    (ckb) رۆژ<n><ind><sg><pr> گەرم<adj><comp> → (eng) a<det><ind><sg> warm<adj><sint><comp> day<n><sg>