Difference between revisions of "Central Kurdish and English/Contrastive Grammar"

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(Verb Conjugation (Past Tense))
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*: {{transferMorphTest|ckb|eng|سەگ{{tag|n}}{{tag|ind}}{{tag|sg}}|a{{tag|det}}{{tag|ind}}{{tag|sp}} dog{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}}}
*: {{transferMorphTest|ckb|eng|سەگ{{tag|n}}{{tag|ind}}{{tag|sg}}|a{{tag|det}}{{tag|ind}}{{tag|sp}} dog{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}}}
=== Verb Conjugation (Past Tense) ===
=== Verb Conjugation ===
Sorani past tense verbs get a set of suffixes at the end that tie back to the subject.
Sorani verbs get a set of suffixes at the end that tie back to the subject.
* {{transferTest|ckb|eng|من هاتم|I came}}
* {{transferTest|ckb|eng|من هاتم|I came}}
*: {{transferMorphTest|ckb|eng|من{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|sg}} هاتن{{tag|v}}{{tag|iv}}{{tag|past}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|sg}}|I{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|mf}}{{tag|sg}} came{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|past}}}}
*: {{transferMorphTest|ckb|eng|من{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|sg}} هاتن{{tag|v}}{{tag|iv}}{{tag|past}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|sg}}|I{{tag|prn}}{{tag|subj}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|mf}}{{tag|sg}} came{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|past}}}}
* {{transferTest|ckb|eng|ئێمە هاتین|We came}}
* {{transferTest|ckb|eng|ئێمە هاتین|We came}}
*: {{transferMorphTest|ckb|eng|ئێمە{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|pl}} هاتن{{tag|v}}{{tag|iv}}{{tag|past}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|pl}}|We{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|mf}}{{tag|pl}} came{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|past}}}}
*: {{transferMorphTest|ckb|eng|ئێمە{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|pl}} هاتن{{tag|v}}{{tag|iv}}{{tag|past}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|pl}}|We{{tag|prn}}{{tag|subj}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|mf}}{{tag|pl}} came{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|past}}}}
* {{transferTest|ckb|eng|ئێمە دەچین|We are going}}
*: {{transferMorphTest|ckb|eng|ئێمە{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|pl}} چوون{{tag|v}}{{tag|iv}}{{tag|past}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|pl}}|We{{tag|prn}}{{tag|subj}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|mf}}{{tag|pl}} came{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|past}}}}
=== Verb Conjugation (Present Tense) ===
=== Verb Conjugation (Present Tense) ===

Revision as of 11:53, 30 April 2021


Definiteness Marker

In Sorani Kurdish, definiteness is marked by a suffix at the end of a noun instead of a separate determiner.

  • (ckb) پیاوەکە → (eng) the man
    (ckb) پیاو<n><def><sg> → (eng) the<det><def><sp> man<n><sg>
  • (ckb) پیاوێک → (eng) a man
    (ckb) پیاو<n><ind><sg> → (eng) a<det><ind><sg> man<n><sg>
  • (ckb) سەگەکان → (eng) the dogs
    (ckb) سەگ<n><def><pl> → (eng) the<det><def><sp> dog<n><pl>
  • (ckb) سەگێک → (eng) a dog
    (ckb) سەگ<n><ind><sg> → (eng) a<det><ind><sp> dog<n><sg>

Verb Conjugation

Sorani verbs get a set of suffixes at the end that tie back to the subject.

  • (ckb) من هاتم → (eng) I came
    (ckb) من<prn><pers><p1><sg> هاتن<v><iv><past><p1><sg> → (eng) I<prn><subj><p1><mf><sg> came<vblex><past>
  • (ckb) ئێمە هاتین → (eng) We came
    (ckb) ئێمە<prn><pers><p1><pl> هاتن<v><iv><past><p1><pl> → (eng) We<prn><subj><p1><mf><pl> came<vblex><past>
  • (ckb) ئێمە دەچین → (eng) We are going
    (ckb) ئێمە<prn><pers><p1><pl> چوون<v><iv><past><p1><pl> → (eng) We<prn><subj><p1><mf><pl> came<vblex><past>

Verb Conjugation (Present Tense)

Object Order

Sorani Kurdish sentences follow an SOV pattern, meaning that the object precedes the verb phrase.

Verb Negation

Sorani verbs are negated using a negation prefix. The prefixes are نە for past tense, نا for nonpast tense, and مە for imperative verbs.

  • (ckb) ئەو نەچوو → (eng) He did not go
    (ckb) ئەو<n><def><sg> چوون<v><iv><past><neg><p3><sg> → (eng) he<prn><subj><p3><m><sg> do<vaux><past> not<adv> go<vblex><inf>
  • (ckb) ئەو ناچێت → (eng) He is not going
    (ckb) ئەو<n><def><sg> چوون<v><iv><npast><neg><p3><sg> → (eng) he<prn><subj><p3><m><sg> be<vbser><pres><p3><sg> not<adv> go<vblex><ger>
  • (ckb) مەچۆ → (eng) Do not go
    (ckb) چوون<v><iv><imp><neg><p2><sg> → (eng) do<vbdo><imp> not<adv> go<vblex><inf>