Difference between revisions of "Chechen and English/Contrastive Grammar"

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(Copular Verb)
(Word Order)
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English is a SVO language and Chechen is a SOV language, which means both lexical verbs and copular verbs occur sentence-finally.
 
English is a SVO language and Chechen is a SOV language, which means both lexical verbs and copular verbs occur sentence-finally.
 
*{{transferTest|che|eng|сан цӀе Иван ю.|My name is Ivan.}}
 
*{{transferTest|che|eng|сан цӀе Иван ю.|My name is Ivan.}}
::{{transferMorphTest|che|eng|сан{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|gen}} цӀе{{tag|n}}{{tag|cl_j}}{{tag|abs}}{{tag|sg}} Иван{{tag|np}}{{tag|ant}}{{tag|abs}}{{tag|sg}} ю{{tag|v}}{{tag|cpl}}{{tag|cl_j}}|my{{tag|det}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|mf}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|pos}} name{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}} is{{tag|vbser}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|sg}} Ivan{{tag|np}}{{tag|ant}}{{tag|m}}{{tag|sg}}}}
+
::{{transferMorphTest|che|eng|сан{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|gen}} цӀе{{tag|n}}{{tag|cl_j}}{{tag|abs}}{{tag|sg}} Иван{{tag|np}}{{tag|ant}}{{tag|abs}}{{tag|sg}} ю{{tag|v}}{{tag|cpl}}{{tag|cl_j}}|my{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|mf}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|pos}} name{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}} is{{tag|vbser}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|sg}} Ivan{{tag|np}}{{tag|ant}}{{tag|m}}{{tag|sg}}}}
 
*{{transferTest|che|eng|Ас бепиг дина.|I made bread.}}
 
*{{transferTest|che|eng|Ас бепиг дина.|I made bread.}}
::{{transferMorphTest|che|eng|Ас{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|erg}} бепиг{{tag|n}}{{tag|cl_j}}{{tag|abs}}{{tag|sg}} дина{{tag|v}}{{tag|tv}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|pf}}|I{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|mf}}{{tag|sg}} made{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|past}} bread{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}}}
+
::{{transferMorphTest|che|eng|Ас{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|erg}} бепиг{{tag|n}}{{tag|cl_j}}{{tag|abs}}{{tag|sg}} дина{{tag|v}}{{tag|tv}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|pf}}|I{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|mf}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|subj}} made{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|past}} bread{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}}}
  
 
==Progressive Construction==
 
==Progressive Construction==

Revision as of 09:08, 4 April 2019

Gender of Pronouns

In Chechen, there is no distinction of male/female gender in pronouns; instead of distinction between subject/object/possessive, all pronouns are assigned case tags.

  • (che) Ас → (eng) I
(che) ас<prn><pers><p1><sg><erg> → (eng) I<prn><pers><p1><mf><sg><subj>
  • (che) иза → (eng) he
(che) иза<prn><pers><p3><sg><abs> → (eng) he<prn><pers><p3><m><sg><subj>

Copular Verb

In Chechen, copular verb has noun-class distinctions, and no number nor person distinction. But in English it's the opposite: number and person distinction exists but not non-class distinction.

  • (che) сан цӀе Иван ю. → (eng) My name is Ivan.
(che) сан<prn><pers><p1><sg><gen> цӀе<n><cl_j><abs><sg> Иван<np><ant><abs><sg> ю<v><cpl><pres><cl_j> → (eng) my<prn><pers><p1><mf><sg><pos> name<n><sg> is<vbser><pres><p3><sg> Ivan<np><ant><m><sg>
  • (che) машина керла ю. → (eng) The car is new.
(che) машина<n><cl_j><abs><sg> керла<adj> ю<v><cpl><pres><cl_j> → (eng) the<det><def><sp> car<n><sg> is<vbser><pres><p3><sg> new<adj><sint>

Word Order

English is a SVO language and Chechen is a SOV language, which means both lexical verbs and copular verbs occur sentence-finally.

  • (che) сан цӀе Иван ю. → (eng) My name is Ivan.
(che) сан<prn><pers><p1><sg><gen> цӀе<n><cl_j><abs><sg> Иван<np><ant><abs><sg> ю<v><cpl><cl_j> → (eng) my<prn><pers><p1><mf><sg><pos> name<n><sg> is<vbser><pres><p3><sg> Ivan<np><ant><m><sg>
  • (che) Ас бепиг дина. → (eng) I made bread.
(che) Ас<prn><pers><p1><sg><erg> бепиг<n><cl_j><abs><sg> дина<v><tv><pres><pf> → (eng) I<prn><pers><p1><mf><sg><subj> made<vblex><past> bread<n><sg>

Progressive Construction

In English, the progressive construction has copular verbs preceding the progressive participle; in Chechen, it is the opposite.

  • (che) со бепиг деш ву. → (eng) I am making bread.
(che) со бепиг деш<v><tv><prog><ptcp> ву<v><cpl><pres><cl_v>. → (eng) I am<vbser><pres><p1><sg> making<vblex><pprs> bread.
  • (che) цициг шура молуш ду. → (eng) the cat is drinking milk.
(che) цициг шура молуш<v><tv><prog><ptcp> ду<v><cpl><pres><cl_d>. → (eng) the cat is<vbser><pres><p3><sg> drinking<vblex><pprs> milk.

Recent/remote Distinction in Past Tense

There is a remote/recent distinction within past tense in Chechen but it does not exist in English.

  • (che) Заремас суна чай доьтти → (eng) Zarema poured me some tea.
(che) Заремас суна чай доьтти<v><tv><past><rec> → (eng) Zarema poured<vblex><past> me some tea.
  • (che) Заремас суна чай доьттира → (eng) Zarema poured me some tea.
(che) Заремас суна чай доьттира<v><tv><past><rem> → (eng) Zarema poured<vblex><past> me some tea.