Difference between revisions of "Dzongkha and English/Contrastive Grammar"

From LING073
Jump to: navigation, search
(Determiner After Noun)
(Adding "to be" Verbs)
Line 33: Line 33:
 
* {{transferTest|dzo|eng|བྱི་ལི་དེ་སྒྲོམ་ནང་འདུག་|The cat is in the box.}}  
 
* {{transferTest|dzo|eng|བྱི་ལི་དེ་སྒྲོམ་ནང་འདུག་|The cat is in the box.}}  
 
*: {{transferMorphTest|dzo|eng|བྱི་ལི{{tag|n}} དེ་{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}} སྒྲོམ་{{tag|n}}{{tag|loc}} འདུག་{{tag|vbser}}|the{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}} cat{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}} is{{tag|vbser}} in{{tag|prp}} the{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}} box{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}} }}
 
*: {{transferMorphTest|dzo|eng|བྱི་ལི{{tag|n}} དེ་{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}} སྒྲོམ་{{tag|n}}{{tag|loc}} འདུག་{{tag|vbser}}|the{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}} cat{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}} is{{tag|vbser}} in{{tag|prp}} the{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}} box{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}} }}
 +
 +
* {{transferTest|dzo|eng|ཁོ་དགེ་སློང་མེན་|He is not a monk.}}
 +
*: {{transferMorphTest|dzo|eng|ཁོ་{{tag|prn}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|m}} དགེ་སློང་{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}} མེན་{{tag|vbser}}{{tag|neg}}|He{{tag|prn}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|m}} is{{tag|vbser}} not{{tag|neg}} a{{tag|def}}{{tag|det}} monk{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}} }}
  
 
=== Determiner After Noun ===
 
=== Determiner After Noun ===

Revision as of 06:07, 29 April 2021

Grammatical Differences

Adding Possessive or Genitive Suffix to Nouns

Adding Case Suffixes to Nouns

Context-sensitive addition of words:

Locative

  • (dzo) སྒྲོམ་ནང་ → (eng) in the box
    (dzo) སྒྲོམ་<n><loc> → (eng) in<prp> a<det><def> box<n><sg>
  • (dzo) དུས་ཚོད་ཁར་ → (eng) on time
    (dzo) དུས་ཚོད་<n><loc> → (eng) on<prp> time<n><sg>

Ablative

  • (dzo) རྒྱ་མཚོ་ལས་ → (eng) from the ocean
    (dzo) རྒྱ་མཚོ་<n><abl> → (eng) from<prp> a<det><def> ocean<n><sg>
  • (dzo) ང་ལས་ → (eng) from me
    (dzo) ང་<prn><p1><sg><abl> → (eng) from<prp> me<prn><p1><sg>

Adding Tense Suffix to Verbs

Past Tense

  • (dzo) ལྷོད་ཅི་ → (eng) arrived
    (dzo) ལྷོད་<v><iv><past> → (eng) arrived<v><iv><past>

Present Tense

Future Tense

Adding "to be" Verbs

Move <vbser> from the end of the sentence to the end of a noun phrase.

  • (dzo) བྱི་ལི་དེ་སྒྲོམ་ནང་འདུག་ → (eng) The cat is in the box.
    (dzo) བྱི་ལི<n> དེ་<det><def> སྒྲོམ་<n><loc> འདུག་<vbser> → (eng) the<det><def> cat<n><sg> is<vbser> in<prp> the<det><def> box<n><sg>
  • (dzo) ཁོ་དགེ་སློང་མེན་ → (eng) He is not a monk.
    (dzo) ཁོ་<prn><p3><sg><m> དགེ་སློང་<n><sg> མེན་<vbser><neg> → (eng) He<prn><p3><sg><m> is<vbser> not<neg> a<def><det> monk<n><sg>

Determiner After Noun

Rearranging word order:

  • (dzo) བྱི་ལི་དེ་ → (eng) the cat
    (dzo) བྱི་ལི<n> དེ་<det><def> → (eng) the<det><def> cat<n><sg>

dzo-eng tests