Difference between revisions of "Dzongkha and English/Contrastive Grammar"

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(Adding "to be" Verbs)
(Verb-Noun Order)
 
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== Grammatical Differences ==
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== dzo-eng tests ==
  
=== Adding Possessive or Genitive Suffix to Nouns ===
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=== Adding Locative Suffixes to Nouns ===
 
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=== Adding Case Suffixes to Nouns ===
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Context-sensitive addition of words:  
 
Context-sensitive addition of words:  
==== Locative ====
 
 
* {{transferTest|dzo|eng|སྒྲོམ་ནང་|in the box}}  
 
* {{transferTest|dzo|eng|སྒྲོམ་ནང་|in the box}}  
*: {{transferMorphTest|dzo|eng|སྒྲོམ་{{tag|n}}{{tag|loc}}|in{{tag|prp}} a{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}} box{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}} }}
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*: {{transferMorphTest|dzo|eng|སྒྲོམ་{{tag|n}}{{tag|loc}}|in{{tag|pr}} the{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}} box{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}} }}
  
 
* {{transferTest|dzo|eng|དུས་ཚོད་ཁར་|on time}}  
 
* {{transferTest|dzo|eng|དུས་ཚོད་ཁར་|on time}}  
*: {{transferMorphTest|dzo|eng|དུས་ཚོད་{{tag|n}}{{tag|loc}}|on{{tag|prp}} time{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}} }}
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*: {{transferMorphTest|dzo|eng|དུས་ཚོད་{{tag|n}}{{tag|loc}}|on{{tag|pr}} time{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}} }}
  
==== Ablative ====
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=== Adding Ablative Suffixes to Nouns ===
 +
Context-sensitive addition of words:
 
* {{transferTest|dzo|eng|རྒྱ་མཚོ་ལས་|from the ocean}}  
 
* {{transferTest|dzo|eng|རྒྱ་མཚོ་ལས་|from the ocean}}  
*: {{transferMorphTest|dzo|eng|རྒྱ་མཚོ་{{tag|n}}{{tag|abl}}|from{{tag|prp}} a{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}} ocean{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}} }}
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*: {{transferMorphTest|dzo|eng|རྒྱ་མཚོ་{{tag|n}}{{tag|abl}}|from{{tag|pr}} the{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}} ocean{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}} }}
  
 
* {{transferTest|dzo|eng|ང་ལས་|from me}}  
 
* {{transferTest|dzo|eng|ང་ལས་|from me}}  
*: {{transferMorphTest|dzo|eng|ང་{{tag|prn}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|abl}}|from{{tag|prp}} me{{tag|prn}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|sg}} }}
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*: {{transferMorphTest|dzo|eng|ང་{{tag|prn}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|abl}}|from{{tag|pr}} me{{tag|prn}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|sg}} }}
 
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=== Adding Tense Suffix to Verbs ===
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==== Past Tense ====
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* {{transferTest|dzo|eng|ལྷོད་ཅི་|arrived}}
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*: {{transferMorphTest|dzo|eng|ལྷོད་{{tag|v}}{{tag|iv}}{{tag|past}}|arrived{{tag|v}}{{tag|iv}}{{tag|past}} }}
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+
==== Present Tense ====
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==== Future Tense ====
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=== Adding "to be" Verbs ===
 
=== Adding "to be" Verbs ===
Move <vbser> from the end of the sentence to the end of a noun phrase.  
+
Move {{tag|vbser}} from the end of the sentence to the end of a noun phrase.  
 
* {{transferTest|dzo|eng|བྱི་ལི་དེ་སྒྲོམ་ནང་འདུག་|The cat is in the box.}}  
 
* {{transferTest|dzo|eng|བྱི་ལི་དེ་སྒྲོམ་ནང་འདུག་|The cat is in the box.}}  
*: {{transferMorphTest|dzo|eng|བྱི་ལི{{tag|n}} དེ་{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}} སྒྲོམ་{{tag|n}}{{tag|loc}} འདུག་{{tag|vbser}}|the{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}} cat{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}} is{{tag|vbser}} in{{tag|prp}} the{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}} box{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}} }}
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*: {{transferMorphTest|dzo|eng|བྱི་ལི{{tag|n}} དེ་{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}} སྒྲོམ་{{tag|n}}{{tag|loc}} འདུག་{{tag|vbser}}|the{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}} cat{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}} is{{tag|vbser}} in{{tag|pr}} the{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}} box{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}} }}
  
 
* {{transferTest|dzo|eng|ཁོ་དགེ་སློང་མེན་|He is not a monk.}}  
 
* {{transferTest|dzo|eng|ཁོ་དགེ་སློང་མེན་|He is not a monk.}}  
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Rearranging word order:  
 
Rearranging word order:  
 
* {{transferTest|dzo|eng|བྱི་ལི་དེ་|the cat}}  
 
* {{transferTest|dzo|eng|བྱི་ལི་དེ་|the cat}}  
*: {{transferMorphTest|dzo|eng|བྱི་ལི{{tag|n}} དེ་{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}}|the{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}} cat{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}} }}
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*: {{transferMorphTest|dzo|eng|བྱི་ལི་{{tag|n}} དེ་{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}}|the{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}} cat{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}} }}
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* {{transferTest|dzo|eng|བྱི་ཙི་དེ་|the rat}}
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*: {{transferMorphTest|dzo|eng|བྱི་ཙི་{{tag|n}} དེ་{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}}|the{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}} rat{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}} }}
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=== Verb-Noun Order ===
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* {{transferTest|dzo|eng|བྱི་ཙི་ཚུ་ཟུང་|catch the rats}}
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*: {{transferMorphTest|dzo|eng|བྱི་ཙི་{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}} ཟུང་{{tag|v}}{{tag|tv}}|catch{{tag|v}}{{tag|tv}} the{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}} rats{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}} }}
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* {{transferTest|dzo|eng|རྡོ་ཚུ་སྤུང་|collect the stones}}
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*: {{transferMorphTest|dzo|eng|རྡོ་{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}} སྤུང་{{tag|v}}{{tag|tv}}|collect{{tag|v}}{{tag|tv}} the{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}} stones{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}} }}
  
== dzo-eng tests ==
 
  
 
[[Category:Sp21_ContrastiveGrammars]] [[Category: Dzongkha]] [[Category: English]]
 
[[Category:Sp21_ContrastiveGrammars]] [[Category: Dzongkha]] [[Category: English]]

Latest revision as of 21:31, 14 May 2021

dzo-eng tests

Adding Locative Suffixes to Nouns

Context-sensitive addition of words:

  • (dzo) སྒྲོམ་ནང་ → (eng) in the box
    (dzo) སྒྲོམ་<n><loc> → (eng) in<pr> the<det><def> box<n><sg>
  • (dzo) དུས་ཚོད་ཁར་ → (eng) on time
    (dzo) དུས་ཚོད་<n><loc> → (eng) on<pr> time<n><sg>

Adding Ablative Suffixes to Nouns

Context-sensitive addition of words:

  • (dzo) རྒྱ་མཚོ་ལས་ → (eng) from the ocean
    (dzo) རྒྱ་མཚོ་<n><abl> → (eng) from<pr> the<det><def> ocean<n><sg>
  • (dzo) ང་ལས་ → (eng) from me
    (dzo) ང་<prn><p1><sg><abl> → (eng) from<pr> me<prn><p1><sg>

Adding "to be" Verbs

Move <vbser> from the end of the sentence to the end of a noun phrase.

  • (dzo) བྱི་ལི་དེ་སྒྲོམ་ནང་འདུག་ → (eng) The cat is in the box.
    (dzo) བྱི་ལི<n> དེ་<det><def> སྒྲོམ་<n><loc> འདུག་<vbser> → (eng) the<det><def> cat<n><sg> is<vbser> in<pr> the<det><def> box<n><sg>
  • (dzo) ཁོ་དགེ་སློང་མེན་ → (eng) He is not a monk.
    (dzo) ཁོ་<prn><p3><sg><m> དགེ་སློང་<n><sg> མེན་<vbser><neg> → (eng) He<prn><p3><sg><m> is<vbser> not<neg> a<def><det> monk<n><sg>

Determiner After Noun

Rearranging word order:

  • (dzo) བྱི་ལི་དེ་ → (eng) the cat
    (dzo) བྱི་ལི་<n> དེ་<det><def> → (eng) the<det><def> cat<n><sg>
  • (dzo) བྱི་ཙི་དེ་ → (eng) the rat
    (dzo) བྱི་ཙི་<n> དེ་<det><def> → (eng) the<det><def> rat<n><sg>

Verb-Noun Order

  • (dzo) བྱི་ཙི་ཚུ་ཟུང་ → (eng) catch the rats
    (dzo) བྱི་ཙི་<n><pl> ཟུང་<v><tv> → (eng) catch<v><tv> the<det><def> rats<n><pl>
  • (dzo) རྡོ་ཚུ་སྤུང་ → (eng) collect the stones
    (dzo) རྡོ་<n><pl> སྤུང་<v><tv> → (eng) collect<v><tv> the<det><def> stones<n><pl>