Dzongkha and English/Contrastive Grammar

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Grammatical Differences

Adding Locative Suffixes to Nouns

Context-sensitive addition of words:

  • (dzo) སྒྲོམ་ནང་ → (eng) in the box
    (dzo) སྒྲོམ་<n><loc> → (eng) in<prp> a<det><def> box<n><sg>
  • (dzo) དུས་ཚོད་ཁར་ → (eng) on time
    (dzo) དུས་ཚོད་<n><loc> → (eng) on<prp> time<n><sg>

Adding Ablative Suffixes to Nouns

Context-sensitive addition of words:

  • (dzo) རྒྱ་མཚོ་ལས་ → (eng) from the ocean
    (dzo) རྒྱ་མཚོ་<n><abl> → (eng) from<prp> a<det><def> ocean<n><sg>
  • (dzo) ང་ལས་ → (eng) from me
    (dzo) ང་<prn><p1><sg><abl> → (eng) from<prp> me<prn><p1><sg>

Adding Tense Suffix to Verbs

Past Tense

  • (dzo) ལྷོད་ཅི་ → (eng) arrived
    (dzo) ལྷོད་<v><iv><past> → (eng) arrived<v><iv><past>

Present Tense

  • (dzo) ཤར་དོ་ → (eng) shining
    (dzo) ཤར་<v><iv><pres> → (eng) shining<v><iv><pres>

Adding "to be" Verbs

Move <vbser> from the end of the sentence to the end of a noun phrase.

  • (dzo) བྱི་ལི་དེ་སྒྲོམ་ནང་འདུག་ → (eng) The cat is in the box.
    (dzo) བྱི་ལི<n> དེ་<det><def> སྒྲོམ་<n><loc> འདུག་<vbser> → (eng) the<det><def> cat<n><sg> is<vbser> in<prp> the<det><def> box<n><sg>
  • (dzo) ཁོ་དགེ་སློང་མེན་ → (eng) He is not a monk.
    (dzo) ཁོ་<prn><p3><sg><m> དགེ་སློང་<n><sg> མེན་<vbser><neg> → (eng) He<prn><p3><sg><m> is<vbser> not<neg> a<def><det> monk<n><sg>

Determiner After Noun

Rearranging word order:

  • (dzo) བྱི་ལི་དེ་ → (eng) the cat
    (dzo) བྱི་ལི<n> དེ་<det><def> → (eng) the<det><def> cat<n><sg>

dzo-eng tests