Fijian/Universal Dependencies

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fij.withmorph.udpipe fij.nomorph.udpipe Number of forms Number of sentences
fij.annotated.ud.conllu UAS: 91.49%, LAS: 87.59% UAS: 83.69%, LAS: 79.79% 282 30
fij.annotated2.ud.conllu UAS: 55.17%, LAS: 39.08% UAS: 50.57%, LAS: 38.51% 174 10

Dependency Relations


The nsubj denotes the noun phrase or pronoun that is the syntactic subject of the predicate. The subject NP always follow the predicate. When there is no subject NP present, the only pronoun preceding the predicate head, which can be verb, adjective, noun, or even number, gets the nsubj relation.

  • Example 1: The NP o Jone following the predicate of the subject clause la’o ('go') is in nsubj relation with the predicate la’o.
	"e" prn pers p3 sg subj @expl #1->2
	"sega" vaux @root #2->0
	"ni" rel @mark #3->4
	"la’o" vblex iv @csubj #4->2
	"o" art @det #5->6
	"Jone" np ant @nsubj #6->4
	"." sent @punct #7->2

'Jone is not going.' (Lit: 'It is not the case that John is going.')

  • Example 2: This sentence does not have a subject NP. The pronoun preceding the predicate head lesu ('return') is the subject of the clause, and thus gets nsubj
	"o" prn pers p2 sg subj1 @nsubj #1->2
	"lesu" vblex iv @root #2->0
	"mai" pr @advmod #3->2
	"." sent @punct #4->2

'You return here.'


A predicate head usually requires a subject pronoun preceding it. When there is a subject NP or subject clause with the same reference following the predicate, the subject pronoun gets the expl relation. When no subject NP nor subject clause is present, the subject pronoun preceding the predicate is not in expl but rather subj as described above. This use of expl corresponds to the second case of expletive relation listed on the UD relations website--true clitic doubling.

  • Example 1: The head of the NP dra’i is the subject of the predicate caa ('(to be) bad'), and so the pronoun e, referring to the a dra’i ('weather'), gets expl relation.
	"e" prn pers p3 sg subj @expl #1->3
	"rui" adv @advmod #2->3
	"caa" adj @root #3->0
	"a" art @det #4->5
	"dra’i" n @nsubj #5->3
	"." sent @punct #6->3

'The weather is unusually bad.'

  • Example 2: The cardinal pronouns ira and rau are used like focus to contrast the two clauses. The subject pronouns are omitted when cardinal pronouns are present. Since a marama ('the women') is the subject of the predicate in the first clause, the clitic cardinal pronoun ira gets the expl relation; since no subject NP is present in the second clause, the cardinal pronoun rau is the nsubj.
	"la’o" vblex iv @root #1->0
	"o" art @det #2->3
	"ra" prn pers p3 pl card1 @expl #3->1
	"a" art @det #4->5
	"marama" n @nsubj #5->1
	";" sent @punct #6->7
	"la’o" vblex iv @conj #7->1
	"mai" pr @advmod #8->7
	"o" art @det #9->10
	"rau" prn pers p3 du card2 @nsubj #10->7
	"." sent @punct #11->7

'They (plural), the women went (home) and they (dual) (i.e. the men) came here.'


As described on the UD relations website, the nominal that is not the core argument of the predicate (i.e. subject or direct object) but modifies the predicate is in obl relation with the predicate. In Fijian, the oblique nominal is usually preceded by a preposition.

  • Example 1: The proper name ’Orovou following the preposition mai ('at') is in obl with the predicate ca’a ('do').
	"e" prn pers p3 sg subj @expl #1->2
	"sega" vaux @root #2->0
	"ni" rel @mark #3->5
	"o" art @det #4->5
	"Viidawa" np top @csubj #5->2
	"," cm @punct #6->8
	"e" prn pers p3 sg subj @expl #7->8
	"ca’a" vblex iv @conj #8->2
	"mai" pr @case #9->10
	"’Orovou" np top @obl #10->8
	"a" art @det #11->12
	"soqo" n @nsubj #12->8
	"." sent @punct #13->8

'It's not Viidawa, the meeting is being held at ’Orovou.

  • Example 2:
  "au" prn pers p1 sg subj2 @expl #1->2
  "sega" vaux @root #2->0
	"soti" adv @advmod #3->2
	"ni" rel @mark #4->5
	"vu’u" vblex iv @csubj #5->2
	"me" rel @mark #6->7
	"tautauvata" adj @amod #7->5
	"’ei" pr @case #8->9
  "Sepo" np ant @obl #9->5
	"." sent @punct #10->2




For more relations as well as their examples, please see fij.annotated.ud.txt and fij.annotated2.ud.txt file in the repository below.