Fijian/Universal Dependencies

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Evaluation

fij.withmorph.udpipe fij.nomorph.udpipe Number of forms Number of sentences
fij.annotated.ud.conllu UAS: 91.49%, LAS: 87.59% UAS: 83.69%, LAS: 79.79% 282 30
fij.annotated2.ud.conllu UAS: 55.17%, LAS: 39.08% UAS: 50.57%, LAS: 38.51% 174 10

Dependency Relations

nsubj

The nsubj denotes the noun phrase or pronoun that is the syntactic subject of the predicate. The subject NP always follow the predicate. When there is no subject NP present, the only pronoun preceding the predicate head, which can be verb, adjective, noun, or even number, gets the nsubj.

  • Example 1: The NP o Jone following the predicate of the subject clause la’o ('go') is nsubj of the predicate la’o.
"<E>"
	"e" prn pers p3 sg subj @expl #1->2
"<sega>"
	"sega" vaux @root #2->0
"<ni>"
	"ni" rel @mark #3->4
"<la’o>"
	"la’o" vblex iv @csubj #4->2
"<o>"
	"o" art @det #5->6
"<Jone>"
	"Jone" np ant @nsubj #6->4
"<.>"
	"." sent @punct #7->2

'Jone is not going.' (Lit: 'It is not the case that John is going.')

  • Example 2: This sentence does not have a subject NP. The pronoun preceding the predicate head lesu ('return') is the subject of the clause, and thus gets nsubj
"<O>"
	"o" prn pers p2 sg subj1 @nsubj #1->2
"<lesu>"
	"lesu" vblex iv @root #2->0
"<mai>"
	"mai" pr @advmod #3->2
"<.>"
	"." sent @punct #4->2

'You return here.'

expl

A predicate head usually requires a subject pronoun preceding it. When there is a subject NP or subject clause with the same reference following the predicate, the subject pronoun gets the expl relation. When no subject NP nor subject clause is present, the subject pronoun preceding the predicate is not an expl but rather a subj as described above. The expl in Fijian corresponds to the second case of expletive relation listed on the UD relations website--true clitic doubling.

  • Example 1: The head of the NP dra’i is the subject of the predicate caa ('(to be) bad'), and so the pronoun e, referring to the a dra’i ('weather'), is the expl.
"<E>"
	"e" prn pers p3 sg subj @expl #1->3
"<rui>"
	"rui" adv @advmod #2->3
"<caa>"
	"caa" adj @root #3->0
"<a>"
	"a" art @det #4->5
"<dra’i>"
	"dra’i" n @nsubj #5->3
"<.>"
	"." sent @punct #6->3

'The weather is unusually bad.'

  • Example 2: The cardinal pronouns ira and rau are used like focus to contrast the two clauses. The subject pronouns are omitted when cardinal pronouns are present. Since a marama ('the women') is the subject of the predicate in the first clause, the clitic cardinal pronoun ira gets the expl; since no subject NP is present in the second clause, the cardinal pronoun rau is the nsubj.
"<La’o>"
	"la’o" vblex iv @root #1->0
"<o>"
	"o" art @det #2->3
"<ira>"
	"ra" prn pers p3 pl card1 @expl #3->1
"<a>"
	"a" art @det #4->5
"<marama>"
	"marama" n @nsubj #5->1
"<;>"
	";" sent @punct #6->7
"<la’o>"
	"la’o" vblex iv @conj #7->1
"<mai>"
	"mai" pr @advmod #8->7
"<o>"
	"o" art @det #9->10
"<rau>"
	"rau" prn pers p3 du card2 @nsubj #10->7
"<.>"
	"." sent @punct #11->7

'They (plural), the women went (home) and they (dual) (i.e. the men) came here.'

obl

As described on the UD relations website, the nominal that is not the core argument of the predicate (i.e. subject or direct object) but modifies the predicate is the obl of the predicate. In Fijian, the oblique nominal is usually preceded by a preposition.

  • Example 1: The proper name ’Orovou following the preposition mai ('at') is the obl of the predicate ca’a ('do').
"<E>"
	"e" prn pers p3 sg subj @expl #1->2
"<sega>"
	"sega" vaux @root #2->0
"<ni>"
	"ni" rel @mark #3->5
"<o>"
	"o" art @det #4->5
"<Viidawa>"
	"Viidawa" np top @csubj #5->2
"<,>"
	"," cm @punct #6->8
"<e>"
	"e" prn pers p3 sg subj @expl #7->8
"<ca’a>"
	"ca’a" vblex iv @conj #8->2
"<mai>"
	"mai" pr @case #9->10
"<’Orovou>"
	"’Orovou" np top @obl #10->8
"<a>"
	"a" art @det #11->12
"<soqo>"
	"soqo" n @nsubj #12->8
"<.>"
	"." sent @punct #13->8

'It's not Viidawa, the meeting is being held at ’Orovou.'

  • Example 2:
"<’Ua>"
	"’ua" vaux @root #1->0
"<ni>"
	"ni" rel @mark #2->4
"<la’i>"
	"la’i" adv @advmod #3->4
"<taaoo>"
	"taaoo" adj @csubj #4->1
"<tale>"
	"tale" adv @advmod #5->4
"<i>"
	"i" pr @case #6->7
"<Viidawa>"
	"Viidawa" np top @obl #7->4
"<,>"
	"," cm @punct #8->9
"<la’o>"
	"la’o" vblex iv @conj #9->1
"<sara>"
	"sara" adv @advmod #10->9
"<i>"
	"i" pr @case #11->12
"<’Orovou>"
	"’Orovou" np top @obl #12->9
"<!>"
	"!" sent @punct #13->9

'Don't get held up at Viidawa, go straight on to ’Orovou.'

advmod

The adverb or adverbial phrase modifying the predicate gets the advmod relation. The advmod is not taken by adverbs only; adjectives (e.g. Example 1 below) sometimes can also be advmod. Fijian sentences tend to use a lot of adverbs (or "modifiers" as called in the grammar book) to modify the predicate head, and some of the words may not be directly translated as adverbs.

  • Example 1: The adjective vina’a ('good') modifies the action vava ('(baby) be carried on back') and thus is the advmod.
"<Sa>"
	"sa" asp @aux #1->2
"<vava>"
	"vava" vblex iv @root #2->0
"<vina’a>"
	"vina’a" adj @advmod #3->2
"<a>"
	"a" art @det #4->5
"<gone>"
	"gone" n @nsubj #5->2
"<yaa>"
	"yaa" det dem @det #6->5
"<?>"
	"?" sent @punct #7->2

'Is the baby being carried on back properly?'

  • Example 2: sara and gaa are both post head modifiers: sara means 'very', 'immediately', and 'right on'; gaa has the meanings 'only', 'particularly', 'just', 'still'. They both modify the
"<Sa>"
	"sa" asp @aux #1->2
"<marama>"
	"marama" n @root #2->0
"<savasavaa>"
	"savasavaa" adj @amod #3->2
"<sara>"
	"sara" adv @advmod #4->2
"<gaa>"
	"gaa" adv @advmod #5->2
"<o>"
	"o" art @det #6->7
"<Aneta>"
	"Aneta" np ant @nsubj #7->2
"<.>"
	"." sent @punct #8->2

'Aneta is a very clean lady.'

xcomp

The xomp is a subordinate clause with a covert subject coreferent with an argument outside the clause, i.e. the subject or object in the main clause. In Fijian, xcomp is usually the secondary predicate without its own subject following a preposition or relator with the meaning similar to 'to' in English (Example 1) or following a modal verb like "incline", "want", and etc (Example 2).

  • Example 1:
"<E>"
	"e" prn pers p3 sg subj @nsubj #1->3
"<sa>"
	"sa" asp @aux #2->3
"<la’o>"
	"la’o" vblex iv @root #3->0
"<i>"
	"i" pr @mark #4->5
"<siwa>"
	"siwa" vblex iv @xcomp #5->3
"<.>"
	"." sent @punct #6->3

'He is going to fish.'

  • Example 2:
"<Saa>"
	"saa" asp @aux #1->2
"<via>"
	"via" vbmod @root #2->0
"<levu>"
	"levu" adj @xcomp #3->2
"<ca’e>"
	"ca’e" adv @advmod #4->3
"<mai>"
	"mai" adv @advmod #5->3
"<a>"
	"a" art @det #6->7
"<wai>"
	"wai" n @nsubj #7->2
"<.>"
	"." sent @punct #8->2

'The water is rising.' (Lit: 'The water is inclining more towards being big up there.')

Corpus

For more relations as well as their examples, please see fij.annotated.ud.txt and fij.annotated2.ud.txt file in the repository below. https://github.swarthmore.edu/hwang11/ling073-fij-corpus