Difference between revisions of "Fijian and English/Contrastive Grammar"

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(Possessive structures)
(Poessive structures)
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{{transferTest|eng|fij|my eye|a mataqu}} (gloss: ART eye-1sg)
 
{{transferTest|eng|fij|my eye|a mataqu}} (gloss: ART eye-1sg)
  
{{transferMorphTest|eng|fij|my{{tag|det}}{{tag|pos}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|mf}}{{tag|sg}} eye{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}|a{{tag|art}} mata{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|pos}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|p1}}}}
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{{transferMorphTest|eng|fij|my{{tag|det}}{{tag|pos}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|mf}}{{tag|sg}} eye{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}|a{{tag|art}} mata{{tag|n}}{{tag|pos}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|sg}}}}
  
 
*Example 2:
 
*Example 2:
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{{transferTest|eng|fij|your father|a tamamu}} (gloss: ART father-2sg)
 
{{transferTest|eng|fij|your father|a tamamu}} (gloss: ART father-2sg)
  
{{transferMorphTest|eng|fij|your{{tag|det}}{{tag|pos}}{{tag|p2}}{{tag|mf}}{{tag|sp}} father{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}|a{{tag|art}} tama{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|pos}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|p2}}}}
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{{transferMorphTest|eng|fij|your{{tag|det}}{{tag|pos}}{{tag|p2}}{{tag|mf}}{{tag|sp}} father{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}|a{{tag|art}} tama{{tag|n}}{{tag|pos}}{{tag|p2}}{{tag|sg}}}}
  
 
==Predicate Structure==  
 
==Predicate Structure==  

Revision as of 11:10, 5 April 2018

Fij-Eng Tests

Noun Phrase Structure

Word orders

In a Fijian NP, adjectives, demonstratives, relative clauses modifying the head noun, if present, must follow the head noun, while in English, adjectives and demonstratives precede the head noun and relative clauses follow the head noun.

  • Example 1:

(fij) a ’oro levu yai → (eng) this big village (gloss: ART village big this)

(fij) a<art> ’oro<n><sg> levu<adj> yai<dem> → (eng) this<det><dem><sg> big<adj><sint> village<n><sg>

  • Example 2:

(fij) a gone vina’a yaa → (eng) that good child (gloss: ART child good that)

(fij) a<art> gone<n><sg> vina’a<adj> yaa<dem> → (eng) that<det><dem><sg> good<adj><sint> child<n><sg>

Nominal articles

An NP in Fijian has to begin with an article: a for common nouns (which becomes na after a preposition) and o for proper names and pronouns (which is dropped after a preposition). The articles in Fijian roughly corresponds to the definite determiner the in English, and there's no indefinite article in Fijian. The indefinite article in English can be translated through the number "one".

  • Example 1.1:

(fij) a ’oro → (eng) the village (gloss: ART village)

(fij) a<art> ’oro<n><sg> → (eng) the<det><def><sp> village<n><sg>

  • Example 1.2:

(fij) e dua a ’oro → (eng) a village (gloss: 3sg-subj one ART village)

(fij) e<prn><pers><p3><sg><subj> dua<num> a<art> ’oro<n><sg> → (eng) a<det><ind><sg> village<n><sg>

  • Example 2.1:

(fij) o Viti → (eng) Fiji (gloss: ART Suva)

(fij) o<art> Viti<np><top><sg> → (eng) Fiji<np><top><sg>


could you give some examples of some of the other patterns you mentioned? in theory each point should have multiple examples, and this one needs it the most

Possessive structures

When the possessor is a pronoun and the possessed is a bound noun, the bound noun is marked with a possessive suffix in Fijian.

  • Example 1:

(fij) a mataqu → (eng) my eye (gloss: ART eye-1sg)

(fij) a<art> mata<n><pos><p1><sg> → (eng) my<det><pos><p1><mf><sg> eye<n><sg>

  • Example 2:

(fij) a tamamu → (eng) your father (gloss: ART father-2sg)

(fij) a<art> tama<n><pos><p2><sg> → (eng) your<det><pos><p2><mf><sp> father<n><sg>

it might be better to just say that the noun is marked with possession morphology in Fijian (if I understand correctly?) and an article occurs with it

  • Note: Fijian distinguishes between bound nouns, which must be followed by one of the following: a pronominal suffix; -i plus name; or ni plus NP, and free nouns, which can stand alone. Bound nouns generally include kin terms used to reference to the kins, primary body parts (e.g. ulu- "head", yava- "leg, foot", mata- "face", sui- "bone", ’uli- "skin" etc., but not draa "blood"), yalo- "spirit", yaca- "name", and several nouns referring to abstract qualities of things (e.g. ti’i- "piece, portion of", vu’u- "cause of", etc.).

Predicate Structure

Word orders

The major clause type in Fijian always has a predicate at the beginning of the clause, usually with a verb as the head and a obligatory subject pronoun in the initial position of the predicate. If a subject NP is present (which is optional), it must follow the predicate. The object pronoun and object NP with the same reference for a transitive verb follow the verb and stand within the predicate. An English clause generally has an SVO word order, and a pronoun and a full NP with the same reference cannot co-occur as the subject of a verb.

Intransitive

  • Example 1.1: When there's no subject NP, the surface word order in Fijian is the same as that in English.

(fij) Au rai. → (eng) I look. (gloss: 1sg-subj look)

(fij) au<prn><pers><p1><sg><subj2> rai<vblex><iv> .<sent> → (eng) prpers<prn><p1><mf><sg><subj> look<vblex><inf><pres> .<sent>

  • Example 1.2:

(fij) Era la’o a gone. → (eng) The children go. (gloss: 3pl-subj go ART child)

(fij) ra<prn><pers><p3><pl><subj1> la’o<vblex><iv> a<art> gone<n><sg> .<sent> → (eng) the<det><def><sp> child<n><pl> go<vblex><pres> .<sent>

Transitive

  • Example 2.0: When the object is a 3sg pronoun, the following sentence is acceptable in Fijian, but not in English without the object explicit.

(fij) Au raica. → (eng) I see him. (Lit: *I see.)

(fij) au<prn><pers><p1><sg><subj2> rai<vblex><tv> .<sent> → (eng) prpers<prn><p1><mf><sg><subj> see<vblex><inf><pres> prpers<prn><p3><m><sg><obj> .<sent>

(fij) Au raica. → (eng) I see her.

(fij) au<prn><pers><p1><sg><subj2> rai<vblex><tv> .<sent> → (eng) prpers<prn><p1><mf><sg><subj> see<vblex><inf><pres> prpers<prn><p3><f><sg><obj> .<sent>

(fij) Au raica. → (eng) I see it.

(fij) au<prn><pers><p1><sg><subj2> rai<vblex><tv> .<sent> → (eng) prpers<prn><p1><mf><sg><subj> see<vblex><inf><pres> prpers<prn><p3><nt><sg><obj> .<sent>

  • Example 2.1:

(fij) Au raici koya. → (eng) I see him. (gloss: I see 3sg-obj)

(fij) au<prn><pers><p1><sg><subj2> rai<vblex><tvprn> koya<prn><pers><p3><sg><obj> .<sent> → (eng) prpers<prn><p1><mf><sg><subj> see<vblex><inf><pres> prpers<prn><p3><m><sg><obj> .<sent>

(fij) Au raici koya. → (eng) I see her.

(fij) au<prn><pers><p1><sg><subj2> rai<vblex><tvprn> koya<prn><pers><p3><sg><obj> .<sent> → (eng) prpers<prn><p1><mf><sg><subj> see<vblex><inf><pres> prpers<prn><p3><f><sg><obj> .<sent>

(fij) Au raici koya. → (eng) I see it.

(fij) au<prn><pers><p1><sg><subj2> rai<vblex><tvprn> koya<prn><pers><p3><sg><obj> .<sent> → (eng) prpers<prn><p1><mf><sg><subj> see<vblex><inf><pres> prpers<prn><p3><nt><sg><obj> .<sent>

(need disambiguating it)

  • Example 2.2:

(fij) Au raici ira a gone. → (eng) I see the children. (gloss: 1sg-subj see 3pl.obj ART child)

(fij) au<prn><pers><p1><sg><subj2> rai<vblex><tvprn> ra<prn><pers><p3><pl><obj> a<art> gone<n><sg> .<sent> → (eng) prpers<prn><p1><mf><sg><subj> see<vblex><inf><pres> the<det><def><sp> child<n><pl> .<sent>

Ambiguity

The following sentence in Fijian is ambiguous.

(fij) E raica a gone. → (eng) He sees the child.

(fij) e<prn><pers><p3><sg><subj> rai<vblex><tv> a<art> gone<n><sg> .<sent> → (eng) prpers<prn><p3><m><sg><subj> see<vblex><pres><p3><sg> the<det><def><sp> child<n><sg> .<sent>

(fij) E raica a gone. → (eng) The child sees him.

(fij) e<prn><pers><sg><p3><subj> rai<vblex><tv> a<art> gone<n><sg> .<sent> → (eng) the<det><def><sp> child<n><sg> see<vblex><pres><p3><sg> prpers<prn><p3><m><sg><obj> .<sent>



could you give some examples of some other orders?

Tense-aspect markers

Fijian uses separate words (known as tense/aspect markers) to mark tenses and aspects, instead of having verb inflections as English does.

(fij) Au aa la’o. → (eng) I went. (gloss: 1sg-subj PAST go)

(fij) au<prn><pers><p1><sg><subj2> aa<past> la’o<vblex><iv> .<sent> → (eng) prpers<prn><p1><mf><sg><subj> go<vblex><past> .<sent>

(fij) Au aa raica a gone. → (eng) I saw the child.

(fij) au<prn><pers><p1><sg><subj2> aa<past> rai<vblex><tv> a<art> gone<n><sg> .<sent> → (eng) prpers<prn><p1><mf><sg><subj> see<vblex><past> the<det><def><sp> child<n><sg> .<sent>

(need to disambiguate saw)


what do your morphology tags in Fijian look like? This will determine how you characterise the difference.

Eng-Fij Tests

Noun Phrase Structure

Word orders

  • Example 1:

(eng) this big village → (fij) a ’oro levu yai (gloss: ART village big this)

(eng) this<det><dem><sg> big<adj><sint> village<n><sg> → (fij) a<art> ’oro<n><sg> levu<adj> yai<dem>

  • Example 2:

(eng) that good child → (fij) a gone vina’a yaa (gloss: ART child good that)

(eng) that<det><dem><sg> good<adj><sint> child<n><sg> → (fij) a<art> gone<n><sg> vina’a<adj> yaa<dem>

Nominal articles

  • Example 1.1:

(eng) the village → (fij) a ’oro (gloss: ART village)

(eng) the<det><def><sp> village<n><sg> → (fij) a<art> ’oro<n><sg>

  • Example 1.2:

(eng) a village → (fij) e dua a ’oro (gloss: 3sg-subj one ART village)

(eng) a<det><ind><sg> village<n><sg> → (fij) e<prn><pers><p3><sg><subj> dua<num> a<art> ’oro<n><sg>

  • Example 2.1:

(eng) Fiji → (fij) o Viti (gloss: ART Suva)

(eng) Fiji<np><top><sg> → (fij) o<art> Viti<np><top><sg>

Poessive structures

  • Example 1:

(eng) my eye → (fij) a mataqu (gloss: ART eye-1sg)

(eng) my<det><pos><p1><mf><sg> eye<n><sg> → (fij) a<art> mata<n><pos><p1><sg>

  • Example 2:

(eng) your father → (fij) a tamamu (gloss: ART father-2sg)

(eng) your<det><pos><p2><mf><sp> father<n><sg> → (fij) a<art> tama<n><pos><p2><sg>

Predicate Structure

Word orders

Intransitive

  • Example 1.1:

(eng) I look. → (fij) Au rai. (gloss: 1sg-subj look)

(eng) prpers<prn><p1><mf><sg><subj> look<vblex><inf><pres> .<sent> → (fij) au<prn><pers><p1><sg><subj2> rai<vblex><iv> .<sent>

  • Example 1.2:

(eng) The children go. → (fij) Era la’o a gone. (gloss: 3pl-subj go ART child)

(eng) the<det><def><sp> child<n><pl> go<vblex><pres> .<sent> → (fij) ra<prn><pers><p3><pl><subj1> la’o<vblex><iv> a<art> gone<n><sg> .<sent>

Transitive

When the object is a 3sg pronoun, the following English sentence can be translated into Fijian in two ways (ex. 2.0 and 2.1).

  • Example 2.0

(eng) I see him. → (fij) Au raica. (Lit: *I see.)

(eng) prpers<prn><p1><mf><sg><subj> see<vblex><inf><pres> prpers<prn><p3><m><sg><obj> .<sent> → (fij) au<prn><pers><p1><sg><subj2> rai<vblex><tv> .<sent>

(eng) I see her. → (fij) Au raica.

(eng) prpers<prn><p1><mf><sg><subj> see<vblex><inf><pres> prpers<prn><p3><f><sg><obj> .<sent> → (fij) au<prn><pers><p1><sg><subj2> rai<vblex><tv> .<sent>

(eng) I see it. → (fij) Au raica.

(eng) prpers<prn><p1><mf><sg><subj> see<vblex><inf><pres> prpers<prn><p3><nt><sg><obj> .<sent> → (fij) au<prn><pers><p1><sg><subj2> rai<vblex><tv> .<sent>

  • Example 2.1:

(eng) I see him. → (fij) Au raici koya. (gloss: I see 3sg-obj)

(eng) prpers<prn><p1><mf><sg><subj> see<vblex><inf><pres> prpers<prn><p3><m><sg><obj> .<sent> → (fij) au<prn><pers><p1><sg><subj2> rai<vblex><tvprn> koya<prn><pers><p3><sg><obj> .<sent>

(eng) I see her. → (fij) Au raici koya. (gloss: I see 3sg-obj)

(eng) prpers<prn><p1><mf><sg><subj> see<vblex><inf><pres> prpers<prn><p3><f><sg><obj> .<sent> → (fij) au<prn><pers><p1><sg><subj2> rai<vblex><tvprn> koya<prn><pers><p3><sg><obj> .<sent>

(eng) I see it. → (fij) Au raici koya. (gloss: I see 3sg-obj)

(eng) prpers<prn><p1><mf><sg><subj> see<vblex><inf><pres> prpers<prn><p3><nt><sg><obj> .<sent> → (fij) au<prn><pers><p1><sg><subj2> rai<vblex><tvprn> koya<prn><pers><p3><sg><obj> .<sent>

  • Example 2.2:

(eng) I see the children. → (fij) Au raici ira a gone. (gloss: 1sg-subj see 3pl.obj ART child)

(eng) prpers<prn><p1><mf><sg><subj> see<vblex><inf><pres> the<det><def><sp> child<n><pl> .<sent> → (fij) au<prn><pers><p1><sg><subj2> rai<vblex><tvprn> ra<prn><pers><p3><pl><obj> a<art> gone<n><sg> .<sent>

Ambiguity

The following sentence in Fijian is ambiguous.

(eng) He sees the child. → (fij) E raica a gone.

(eng) prpers<prn><p3><m><sg><subj> see<vblex><pres><p3><sg> the<det><def><sp> child<n><sg> .<sent> → (fij) e<prn><pers><p3><sg><subj> rai<vblex><tv> a<art> gone<n><sg> .<sent>

(eng) The child sees him. → (fij) E raica a gone.

(eng) the<det><def><sp> child<n><sg> see<vblex><pres><p3><sg> prpers<prn><p3><m><sg><obj> .<sent> → (fij) e<prn><pers><sg><p3><subj> rai<vblex><tv> a<art> gone<n><sg> .<sent>


Tense-aspect markers

  • Example 1:

(eng) I went. → (fij) Au aa la’o. (gloss: 1sg-subj PAST go)

(eng) prpers<prn><p1><mf><sg><subj> go<vblex><past> .<sent> → (fij) au<prn><pers><p1><sg><subj2> aa<past> la’o<vblex><iv> .<sent>

  • Example 2:

(eng) I saw the child. → (fij) Au aa raica a gone.

(eng) prpers<prn><p1><mf><sg><subj> see<vblex><past> the<det><def><sp> child<n><sg> .<sent> → (fij) au<prn><pers><p1><sg><subj2> aa<past> rai<vblex><tv> a<art> gone<n><sg> .<sent>