Difference between revisions of "Fijian and English/Lexical selection"

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(eng → fij)
(fij → eng)
 
(9 intermediate revisions by the same user not shown)
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{{transferTest|eng|fij|bend|lo’i}} (e.g. bend at a joint)
 
{{transferTest|eng|fij|bend|lo’i}} (e.g. bend at a joint)
 
:-Rule: Select ''pelu'' as the translation of ''bend'' when it is followed by a kind of metal.
 
  
 
:-Example Sentences:
 
:-Example Sentences:
:*He bends the metal.
+
:*The youth bends the metal.
:*The child bends at her elbow.
+
:*The child bends at her waist.
 +
:-Rule 1: Select ''pelu'' as the translation of ''bend'' when it is followed by a kind of metal.
 +
:-Test after implementing the rule:
 +
<pre>
 +
$ echo "The youth bends the metal." | apertium -d . eng-fij
 +
A cauravou #pelu a kaukamea.
 +
</pre>
 +
:-Rule 2: Select ''lo’i'' as the translation of ''bend'' when it is followed by a noun related to a joint.
 +
:-Test:
 +
<pre>
 +
$ echo "The child bends at her waist." | apertium -d . eng-fij
 +
A gone #lo’i i  tolona.
 +
</pre>
  
 
*Case 2:  
 
*Case 2:  
Line 17: Line 27:
  
 
{{transferTest|eng|fij|shine on|cila}} (sun/moon/star shines on)
 
{{transferTest|eng|fij|shine on|cila}} (sun/moon/star shines on)
 
:-Rule: Select ''cila'' as the translation of ''shine'' when it is preceded by ''sun'', ''moon'', or ''stars''.
 
  
 
:-Example Sentences:
 
:-Example Sentences:
 
:*The moon shines.
 
:*The moon shines.
 
:*The torch shines.
 
:*The torch shines.
 
+
:-Rule 1: Select ''cila'' as the translation of ''shine'' when it is preceded by ''sun'', ''moon'', ''stars'' or any natural light sources.
:-Tests after implementing the rule:
+
:-Test after implementing the rule:
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
 
$ echo "The sun shines." | apertium -d . eng-fij
 
$ echo "The sun shines." | apertium -d . eng-fij
 
A siga #cila.
 
A siga #cila.
 +
</pre>
 +
:-Rule 2: Select ''cina'' as the translation of ''shine'' when it is preceded by ''torch'', ''light'', or any artificial light sources.
 +
:-Test:
 +
<pre>
 +
echo "The torch shines." | apertium -d . eng-fij
 +
A *torch #cina.
 +
</pre>
 +
 +
==fij → eng==
 +
*Case 1:
 +
 +
{{transferTest|fij|eng|vula|moon}}
 +
 +
{{transferTest|fij|eng|vula|month}}
 +
 +
:-Example Phrases:
 +
:*e tolu a vula (three months)
 +
:*a vula levu (the big moon)
 +
:-Rule 1: Select ''month'' as the translation of ''vula'' when it is preceded (not immediately) by a number:
 +
:-Test after implementing the rule:
 +
<pre>
 +
$ echo "e tolu a vula" | apertium -d . fij-eng
 +
#prpers #three the month
 +
</pre>
 +
:-Rule 2: Select ''moon'' as the translation of ''vula'' when it is surrounded by adjectives like ''bright'', ''big'', ''round'', etc..
 +
:-Test:
 +
<pre>
 +
$ echo "a vula levu" | apertium -d . fij-eng
 +
the moon big
 +
</pre>
 +
 +
*Case 2:
 +
 +
{{transferTest|fij|eng|sere|untie}} (O verb)
  
 +
{{transferTest|fij|eng|sere|sing}} (A verb)
 +
 +
:-Example sentences:
 +
:*E sere a gone. (The child sings.)
 +
:*E sere a dali. (The rope is untied.)
 +
:-Rule 1: Select ''sing'' as the translation of ''sere'' when the subject is animate, e.g. when the Subject NP following it contains ''gone'' ('child') or ''cauravou'' ('youth') as the head noun:
 +
<pre>
 +
  <rule>
 +
    <match lemma="sere" tags="vblex.*">
 +
      <select lemma="sing" tags="vblex"/>
 +
    </match>
 +
    <match tags="art"/>
 +
    <or>
 +
    <match lemma="gone" tags="n.*"/>
 +
    <match lemma="cauravou" tags="n.*"/>
 +
    </or>
 +
  </rule>
 +
</pre>
 +
:-Test:
 +
<pre>
 +
$ echo "E sere a gone." | apertium -d . fij-eng
 +
#Prpers #sing the child.
 +
</pre>
 +
:-Rule 2: Select ''untie'' as the translation of ''sere'' when its subject is inanimate, e.g. when the Subject NP following it contains ''dali'' ('rope') as the head noun:
 +
<pre>
 +
  <rule>
 +
    <match lemma="sere" tags="vblex.*">
 +
      <select lemma="untie" tags="vblex"/>
 +
    </match>
 +
    <match tags="art"/>
 +
    <match lemma="dali" tags="n.*"/>
 +
  </rule>
 +
</pre>
 +
:-Test: (*Problem: this rule failed to select ''untie'' as the translation.)
 +
<pre>
 +
$ echo "E sere a dali." | apertium -d . fij-eng
 +
#Prpers #untie the rope.
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
==fij → eng==
+
*Case 3.1:
*Case 1.1:
 
  
 
{{transferTest|fij|eng|yava|leg}}
 
{{transferTest|fij|eng|yava|leg}}
Line 38: Line 116:
 
{{transferTest|fij|eng|yava|foot}}
 
{{transferTest|fij|eng|yava|foot}}
  
*Case 1.2:
+
*Case 3.2:
  
 
{{transferTest|fij|eng|liga|arm}}
 
{{transferTest|fij|eng|liga|arm}}
Line 44: Line 122:
 
{{transferTest|fij|eng|liga|hand}}
 
{{transferTest|fij|eng|liga|hand}}
  
*Case 1.3:
+
*Case 3.3:
  
 
{{transferTest|fij|eng|mata|face}}
 
{{transferTest|fij|eng|mata|face}}
Line 50: Line 128:
 
{{transferTest|fij|eng|mata|eye}}
 
{{transferTest|fij|eng|mata|eye}}
  
*Case 2:
+
*Case 4:
 
 
{{transferTest|fij|eng|vula|moon}}
 
 
 
{{transferTest|fij|eng|vula|month}}
 
 
 
:-Rule: Select ''month'' as the translation of ''vula'' when it is preceded (not immediately) by a number.
 
:-Example Phrases:
 
:*e tolu a vula (three months)
 
:*a vula levu (the big moon)
 
:-Tests after implementing the rule:
 
<pre>
 
$ echo "e tolu a vula" | apertium -d . fij-eng
 
#prpers #three the month
 
</pre>
 
 
 
*Case 3:
 
  
 
{{transferTest|fij|eng|basu|tear up}} (e.g. old clothes)
 
{{transferTest|fij|eng|basu|tear up}} (e.g. old clothes)
Line 72: Line 134:
 
{{transferTest|fij|eng|basu|tear down}} (e.g. old buildings)
 
{{transferTest|fij|eng|basu|tear down}} (e.g. old buildings)
  
*Case 4:Fijian does not distinguish genders on pronouns.
+
*Case 5:Fijian does not distinguish genders on pronouns.
  
 
{{transferTest|fij|eng|koya|him}}
 
{{transferTest|fij|eng|koya|him}}
Line 80: Line 142:
 
{{transferTest|fij|eng|koya|it}}
 
{{transferTest|fij|eng|koya|it}}
  
*Case 5: (a disambiguation problem?)
+
*Case 6: (a disambiguation problem?)
  
 
The word ''levu'' can be used either as an adjective meaning "big", or a number meaning "many, much", but both numbers and adjectives can be a predicate head (like a verb).
 
The word ''levu'' can be used either as an adjective meaning "big", or a number meaning "many, much", but both numbers and adjectives can be a predicate head (like a verb).

Latest revision as of 12:28, 10 April 2018

eng → fij

  • Case 1:

(eng) bend → (fij) pelu (e.g. bend of metal)

(eng) bend → (fij) lo’i (e.g. bend at a joint)

-Example Sentences:
  • The youth bends the metal.
  • The child bends at her waist.
-Rule 1: Select pelu as the translation of bend when it is followed by a kind of metal.
-Test after implementing the rule:
$ echo "The youth bends the metal." | apertium -d . eng-fij
A cauravou #pelu a kaukamea.
-Rule 2: Select lo’i as the translation of bend when it is followed by a noun related to a joint.
-Test:
$ echo "The child bends at her waist." | apertium -d . eng-fij
A gone #lo’i i  tolona.
  • Case 2:

(eng) shine on → (fij) cina (light/torch shines on)

(eng) shine on → (fij) cila (sun/moon/star shines on)

-Example Sentences:
  • The moon shines.
  • The torch shines.
-Rule 1: Select cila as the translation of shine when it is preceded by sun, moon, stars or any natural light sources.
-Test after implementing the rule:
$ echo "The sun shines." | apertium -d . eng-fij
A siga #cila.
-Rule 2: Select cina as the translation of shine when it is preceded by torch, light, or any artificial light sources.
-Test:
echo "The torch shines." | apertium -d . eng-fij
A *torch #cina.

fij → eng

  • Case 1:

(fij) vula → (eng) moon

(fij) vula → (eng) month

-Example Phrases:
  • e tolu a vula (three months)
  • a vula levu (the big moon)
-Rule 1: Select month as the translation of vula when it is preceded (not immediately) by a number:
-Test after implementing the rule:
$ echo "e tolu a vula" | apertium -d . fij-eng
#prpers #three the month
-Rule 2: Select moon as the translation of vula when it is surrounded by adjectives like bright, big, round, etc..
-Test:
$ echo "a vula levu" | apertium -d . fij-eng
the moon big
  • Case 2:

(fij) sere → (eng) untie (O verb)

(fij) sere → (eng) sing (A verb)

-Example sentences:
  • E sere a gone. (The child sings.)
  • E sere a dali. (The rope is untied.)
-Rule 1: Select sing as the translation of sere when the subject is animate, e.g. when the Subject NP following it contains gone ('child') or cauravou ('youth') as the head noun:
  <rule>
    <match lemma="sere" tags="vblex.*">
      <select lemma="sing" tags="vblex"/>
    </match>
    <match tags="art"/>
    <or>
    <match lemma="gone" tags="n.*"/>
    <match lemma="cauravou" tags="n.*"/>
    </or>
  </rule>
-Test:
$ echo "E sere a gone." | apertium -d . fij-eng
#Prpers #sing the child.
-Rule 2: Select untie as the translation of sere when its subject is inanimate, e.g. when the Subject NP following it contains dali ('rope') as the head noun:
  <rule>
    <match lemma="sere" tags="vblex.*">
      <select lemma="untie" tags="vblex"/>
    </match>
    <match tags="art"/>
    <match lemma="dali" tags="n.*"/>
  </rule>
-Test: (*Problem: this rule failed to select untie as the translation.)
$ echo "E sere a dali." | apertium -d . fij-eng
#Prpers #untie the rope.
  • Case 3.1:

(fij) yava → (eng) leg

(fij) yava → (eng) foot

  • Case 3.2:

(fij) liga → (eng) arm

(fij) liga → (eng) hand

  • Case 3.3:

(fij) mata → (eng) face

(fij) mata → (eng) eye

  • Case 4:

(fij) basu → (eng) tear up (e.g. old clothes)

(fij) basu → (eng) tear down (e.g. old buildings)

  • Case 5:Fijian does not distinguish genders on pronouns.

(fij) koya → (eng) him

(fij) koya → (eng) her

(fij) koya → (eng) it

  • Case 6: (a disambiguation problem?)

The word levu can be used either as an adjective meaning "big", or a number meaning "many, much", but both numbers and adjectives can be a predicate head (like a verb).

(fij) levu → (eng) big (adj)

(fij) levu → (eng) a lot of (num)

The sentence E levu a vula. is ambiguous in Fijian, meaning either 'The moon is big.' or 'There are many months.'