Difference between revisions of "Ladino and English/Contrastive Grammar"

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==Sentences==
 
===Sentence Analysis===
 
====Sentence 1====
 
El mirava en el cielo y en la estrellería: He was looking at heaven and at the stars
 
  
^El<prn><pers><p3><m><sg><nom>/Prpers<prn><subj><p3><m><sg>$ ^mirar<v><iv><pii><p1><sg>/look<vblex><pii><p1><sg>$ ^en<pr>/at<pr>/on<pr>/in<pr>$ ^el<det><def><m><sg>/the<det><def><sp>$ ^cielo<n><m><sg>/heavens<n><sg>$ ^y<cnjcoo>/and<cnjcoo>$ ^en<pr>/at<pr>/on<pr>/in<pr>$ ^el<det><def><f><sg>/the<det><def><sp>$ ^estrellería<n><f><sg>/stars<n><sg>$^.<sent>/.<sent>$
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==Lad-Eng Tests==
 +
===Nouns without Determiners===
 +
*{{transferTest|lad|eng|la Espanya|Spain}}
 +
  {{transferMorphTest|lad|eng|el{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}}{{tag|f}}{{tag|sg}} Espanya{{tag|np}}{{tag|loc}}|Spain{{tag|np}}{{tag|loc}}}}
 +
*{{transferTest|lad|eng|la Gresia|Greece}}
 +
  {{transferMorphTest|lad|eng|el{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}}{{tag|f}}{{tag|sg}} Gresia{{tag|np}}{{tag|loc}}|Greece{{tag|np}}{{tag|loc}}}}
  
This shows that some nouns that don't have determiners in English have determiners in Ladino, like the 'heavens' translation of cielo.
+
===Grammatical Gender===
 +
*{{transferTest|lad|eng|la estreyeriya|the stars}}
 +
  {{transferMorphTest|lad|eng|el{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}}{{tag|f}}{{tag|sg}} estreyeriya{{tag|n}}{{tag|f}}{{tag|sg}}|the{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}} star{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}}}
 +
*{{transferTest|lad|eng|la lingua|the language}}
 +
  {{transferMorphTest|lad|eng|el{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}}{{tag|f}}{{tag|sg}} lingua{{tag|n}}{{tag|f}}{{tag|sg}}|the{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}} language{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}}}
  
====Sentence 2====
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===Reflexive Verb Order===
No me mires: Don't look at me
+
*{{transferTest|lad|eng|me mires|look at me}}
 +
  {{transferMorphTest|lad|eng|me{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|pro}} mirar{{tag|v}}{{tag|prs}}{{tag|p2}}{{tag|sg}}|look{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|imp}} prpers{{tag|prn}}{{tag|obj}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|mf}}{{tag|sg}}}}
  
^No<adv>/Not<adv>$ ^me<prn><pers><p1><sg><pro>/prpers<prn><obj><p1><mf><sg>$ ^mirar<v><iv><prs><p2><sg>/look<vblex><prs><p2><sg>$^.<sent>/.<sent>$
+
*{{transferTest|lad|eng|te pario|she bore you}}
 +
  {{transferMorphTest|lad|eng|te{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p2}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|pro}} parir{{tag|v}}{{tag|ifi}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|sg}}|prpers{{tag|prn}}{{tag|subj}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|f}}{{tag|sg}} bear{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|past}} prpers{{tag|prn}}{{tag|obj}}{{tag|p2}}{{tag|mf}}{{tag|sp}}}}
  
There are a number of differences between English and Ladino in this sentence.
+
*{{transferTest|lad|eng|te dio|she gave you}}
For one, the phrase 'look at me' is changed to 'me mires'. Mires would translate as 'you look', and me would translate as 'at me', so the order is switched from 'at me you look' to 'you look at me'.
+
  {{transferMorphTest|lad|eng|te{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p2}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|pro}} dar{{tag|v}}{{tag|ifi}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|sg}}|prpers{{tag|prn}}{{tag|subj}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|f}}{{tag|sg}} give{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|past}} prpers{{tag|prn}}{{tag|obj}}{{tag|p2}}{{tag|mf}}{{tag|sp}}}}
Secondly, the sentence doesn't require the verb 'to do' that combines with not to create don't. Instead, 'no' suffices to contradict the command.
+
  
====Sentence 3====
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===Adjective Order===
Yo mirí en el korason de la estrellería: I looked at the heart of the stars
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*{{transferTest|lad|eng|los djudios sefardim|Sephardi Jews}}
 +
  {{transferMorphTest|lad|eng|el{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}}{{tag|m}}{{tag|pl}} djudio{{tag|n}}{{tag|m}}{{tag|pl}} sefardim{{tag|adj}}{{tag|m}}{{tag|pl}}|Sephardi{{tag|adj}}{{tag|pl}} Jews{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}}}
 +
*{{transferTest|lad|eng|la luz santa|the holy light}}
 +
  {{transferMorphTest|lad|eng|el{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}}{{tag|f}}{{tag|sg}} luz{{tag|n}}{{tag|f}}{{tag|sg}} santa{{tag|adj}}{{tag|f}}{{tag|sg}}|the{{tag|det}} holy{{tag|adj}}{{tag|sg}} light{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}}}
  
^Yo<prn><pers><p1><sg><nom>/Prpers<prn><subj><p1><mf><sg>$ ^mirar<v><iv><pret><p1><sg>/look<vblex><pret><p1><sg>$ ^en<pr>/at<pr>/on<pr>/in<pr>$ ^el<det><def><m><sg>/the<det><def><sp>$ ^korason<n><m><sg>/heart<n><sg>$ ^de<pr>/of<pr>/from<pr>$ ^*la/*la$ ^estrellería<n><f><sg>/stars<n><sg>$^.<sent>/.<sent>$
+
===Conjugation Drops Words===
 +
*{{transferTest|lad|eng|mirava|he looked}}
 +
  {{transferMorphTest|lad|eng|mirar{{tag|v}}{{tag|pii}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|sg}}|prpers{{tag|prn}}{{tag|subj}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|m}}{{tag|sg}} look{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|past}}}}
  
====Sentence 4====
+
*{{transferTest|lad|eng|komo limones|I eat lemons}}
Eyas no somportaría la dolor: They(fem) do not bear the pain
+
  {{transferMorphTest|lad|eng|komer{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|sg}} limon{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}|prpers{{tag|prn}}{{tag|subj}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|mf}}{{tag|sg}} eat{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|pres}} lemon{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}}}
  
^Eyas<prn><pers><p3><f><pl><nom>/Prpers<prn><subj><p3><f><pl>$ ^no<adv>/not<adv>$ ^somportar<v><tv><cni><p1><sg>/bear<vblex><cni><p1><sg>$ ^*la/*la$ ^dolor<n><f><sg>/pain<n><sg>$^.<sent>/.<sent>$
 
 
====Sentence 5====
 
Eyos kantan: They(masculine) sing
 
 
^Eyos<prn><pers><p3><m><pl><nom>/Prpers<prn><subj><p3><m><pl>$ ^kantar<v><iv><pres><p3><pl>/sing<vblex><pres><p3><pl>$^.<sent>/.<sent>$
 
 
====Sentence 6====
 
Eya kantó: She sang
 
 
^Eya<prn><pers><p3><f><sg><nom>/Prpers<prn><subj><p3><f><sg>$ ^kantar<v><iv><pret><p3><sg>/sing<vblex><pret><p3><sg>$^.<sent>/.<sent>$
 
 
 
====Sentence 7====
 
Yo bivire en Yisrael: I will live in Israel
 
 
^Yo<prn><pers><p1><sg><nom>/Prpers<prn><subj><p1><mf><sg>$ ^bivir<v><iv><fut><p1><sg>/live<vblex><fut><p1><sg>$ ^en<pr>/at<pr>/on<pr>/in<pr>$ ^Yisrael<np>/Israel<np>$^.<sent>/.<sent>$
 
 
====Sentence 8====
 
Nozotros komeriamos en la kavané: We would eat in the coffeehouse
 
 
^Nozotros<prn><pers><p1><m><pl><nom>/Prpers<prn><subj><p1><mf><pl>$ ^komer<v><tv><cni><p1><pl>/eat<vblex><cni><p1><pl>$ ^en<pr>/at<pr>/on<pr>/in<pr>$ ^el<det><def><f><sg>/the<det><def><sp>$ ^kavané<n><f><sg>/coffeehouse<n><sg>$^.<sent>/.<sent>$
 
 
 
====Sentence 9====
 
Tu biviras kuatro mezes: You will live four months
 
 
^Tu<prn><pers><p2><sg><nom>/Prpers<prn><subj><p2><mf><sg>$ ^bivir<v><iv><fut><p2><sg>/live<vblex><fut><p2><sg>$ ^kuatro<num>/four<num><pl>$ ^mes<n><m><pl>/month<n><pl>$^.<sent>/.<sent>$
 
 
====Sentence 10====
 
Eyos no komieron el limón: They did not eat the lemon
 
 
^Eyos<prn><pers><p3><m><pl><nom>/Prpers<prn><subj><p3><m><pl>$ ^no<adv>/not<adv>$ ^komer<v><tv><pret><p3><pl>/eat<vblex><pret><p3><pl>$ ^el<det><def><m><sg>/the<det><def><sp>$ ^limón<n><m><sg>/lemon<n><sg>$^.<sent>/.<sent>$
 
  
 
[[Category:Sp21_ContrastiveGrammars]] [[Category:Ladino]] [[Category:English]]
 
[[Category:Sp21_ContrastiveGrammars]] [[Category:Ladino]] [[Category:English]]

Latest revision as of 22:55, 17 May 2021

Lad-Eng Tests

Nouns without Determiners

  • (lad) la Espanya → (eng) Spain
  (lad) el<det><def><f><sg> Espanya<np><loc> → (eng) Spain<np><loc>
  • (lad) la Gresia → (eng) Greece
  (lad) el<det><def><f><sg> Gresia<np><loc> → (eng) Greece<np><loc>

Grammatical Gender

  • (lad) la estreyeriya → (eng) the stars
  (lad) el<det><def><f><sg> estreyeriya<n><f><sg> → (eng) the<det><def> star<n><pl>
  • (lad) la lingua → (eng) the language
  (lad) el<det><def><f><sg> lingua<n><f><sg> → (eng) the<det><def> language<n><sg>

Reflexive Verb Order

  • (lad) me mires → (eng) look at me
  (lad) me<prn><pers><p1><sg><pro> mirar<v><prs><p2><sg> → (eng) look<vblex><imp> prpers<prn><obj><p1><mf><sg>
  • (lad) te pario → (eng) she bore you
  (lad) te<prn><pers><p2><sg><pro> parir<v><ifi><p3><sg> → (eng) prpers<prn><subj><p3><f><sg> bear<vblex><past> prpers<prn><obj><p2><mf><sp>
  • (lad) te dio → (eng) she gave you
  (lad) te<prn><pers><p2><sg><pro> dar<v><ifi><p3><sg> → (eng) prpers<prn><subj><p3><f><sg> give<vblex><past> prpers<prn><obj><p2><mf><sp>

Adjective Order

  • (lad) los djudios sefardim → (eng) Sephardi Jews
  (lad) el<det><def><m><pl> djudio<n><m><pl> sefardim<adj><m><pl> → (eng) Sephardi<adj><pl> Jews<n><pl>
  • (lad) la luz santa → (eng) the holy light
  (lad) el<det><def><f><sg> luz<n><f><sg> santa<adj><f><sg> → (eng) the<det> holy<adj><sg> light<n><sg>

Conjugation Drops Words

  • (lad) mirava → (eng) he looked
  (lad) mirar<v><pii><p3><sg> → (eng) prpers<prn><subj><p3><m><sg> look<vblex><past>
  • (lad) komo limones → (eng) I eat lemons
  (lad) komer<v><pres><p1><sg> limon<n><pl> → (eng) prpers<prn><subj><p1><mf><sg> eat<vblex><pres> lemon<n><pl>