Difference between revisions of "Ladino and English/Contrastive Grammar"

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(Sentence Analysis)
(Reflexive Verb Order)
 
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==Sentences==
 
===Sentence Analysis===
 
====Sentence 1====
 
El mirava en el cielo y en la estrellería: He was looking at heaven and at the stars
 
  
^El<prn><pers><p3><m><sg><nom>/Prpers<prn><subj><p3><m><sg>$ ^mirar<v><iv><pii><p1><sg>/look<vblex><pii><p1><sg>$ ^en<pr>/at<pr>/on<pr>/in<pr>$ ^el<det><def><m><sg>/the<det><def><sp>$ ^cielo<n><m><sg>/heavens<n><sg>$ ^y<cnjcoo>/and<cnjcoo>$ ^en<pr>/at<pr>/on<pr>/in<pr>$ ^el<det><def><f><sg>/the<det><def><sp>$ ^estrellería<n><f><sg>/stars<n><sg>$^.<sent>/.<sent>$
+
==Lad-Eng Tests==
 +
===Nouns without Determiners===
 +
*{{transferTest|lad|eng|la Espanya|Spain}}
 +
  {{transferMorphTest|lad|eng|el{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}}{{tag|f}}{{tag|sg}} Espanya{{tag|np}}{{tag|loc}}|Spain{{tag|np}}{{tag|loc}}}}
 +
*{{transferTest|lad|eng|la Gresia|Greece}}
 +
  {{transferMorphTest|lad|eng|el{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}}{{tag|f}}{{tag|sg}} Gresia{{tag|np}}{{tag|loc}}|Greece{{tag|np}}{{tag|loc}}}}
  
This shows that some nouns that don't have determiners in English have determiners in Ladino, like the 'heavens' translation of cielo.
+
===Grammatical Gender===
 +
*{{transferTest|lad|eng|la estreyeriya|the stars}}
 +
  {{transferMorphTest|lad|eng|el{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}}{{tag|f}}{{tag|sg}} estreyeriya{{tag|n}}{{tag|f}}{{tag|sg}}|the{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}} star{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}}}
 +
*{{transferTest|lad|eng|la lingua|the language}}
 +
  {{transferMorphTest|lad|eng|el{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}}{{tag|f}}{{tag|sg}} lingua{{tag|n}}{{tag|f}}{{tag|sg}}|the{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}} language{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}}}
  
It also shows that nouns and determiners in Ladino has grammatical gender, which they don't in English. (Adjectives are also gendered in Ladino, but not in English, but that doesn't appear in this sentence.)
+
===Reflexive Verb Order===
 +
*{{transferTest|lad|eng|me mires|look at me}}
 +
  {{transferMorphTest|lad|eng|me{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|pro}} mirar{{tag|v}}{{tag|prs}}{{tag|p2}}{{tag|sg}}|look{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|imp}} prpers{{tag|prn}}{{tag|obj}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|mf}}{{tag|sg}}}}
  
====Sentence 2====
+
*{{transferTest|lad|eng|te pario|she bore you}}
No me mires: Don't look at me
+
  {{transferMorphTest|lad|eng|te{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p2}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|pro}} parir{{tag|v}}{{tag|ifi}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|sg}}|prpers{{tag|prn}}{{tag|subj}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|f}}{{tag|sg}} bear{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|past}} prpers{{tag|prn}}{{tag|obj}}{{tag|p2}}{{tag|mf}}{{tag|sp}}}}
  
^No<adv>/Not<adv>$ ^me<prn><pers><p1><sg><pro>/prpers<prn><obj><p1><mf><sg>$ ^mirar<v><iv><prs><p2><sg>/look<vblex><prs><p2><sg>$^.<sent>/.<sent>$
+
*{{transferTest|lad|eng|te dio|she gave you}}
 +
  {{transferMorphTest|lad|eng|te{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p2}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|pro}} dar{{tag|v}}{{tag|ifi}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|sg}}|prpers{{tag|prn}}{{tag|subj}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|f}}{{tag|sg}} give{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|past}} prpers{{tag|prn}}{{tag|obj}}{{tag|p2}}{{tag|mf}}{{tag|sp}}}}
  
There are a number of differences between English and Ladino in this sentence.
+
===Adjective Order===
 +
*{{transferTest|lad|eng|los djudios sefardim|Sephardi Jews}}
 +
  {{transferMorphTest|lad|eng|el{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}}{{tag|m}}{{tag|pl}} djudio{{tag|n}}{{tag|m}}{{tag|pl}} sefardim{{tag|adj}}{{tag|m}}{{tag|pl}}|Sephardi{{tag|adj}}{{tag|pl}} Jews{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}}}
 +
*{{transferTest|lad|eng|la luz santa|the holy light}}
 +
  {{transferMorphTest|lad|eng|el{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}}{{tag|f}}{{tag|sg}} luz{{tag|n}}{{tag|f}}{{tag|sg}} santa{{tag|adj}}{{tag|f}}{{tag|sg}}|the{{tag|det}} holy{{tag|adj}}{{tag|sg}} light{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}}}
  
For one, the phrase 'look at me' is changed to 'me mires'. Mires would translate as 'you look', and me would translate as 'at me', so the order is switched from 'at me you look' to 'you look at me'.
+
===Conjugation Drops Words===
 +
*{{transferTest|lad|eng|mirava|he looked}}
 +
  {{transferMorphTest|lad|eng|mirar{{tag|v}}{{tag|pii}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|sg}}|prpers{{tag|prn}}{{tag|subj}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|m}}{{tag|sg}} look{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|past}}}}
  
Secondly, the sentence doesn't require the verb 'to do' that combines with not to create don't. Instead, 'no' suffices to contradict the command.
+
*{{transferTest|lad|eng|komo limones|I eat lemons}}
 +
  {{transferMorphTest|lad|eng|komer{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|sg}} limon{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}|prpers{{tag|prn}}{{tag|subj}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|mf}}{{tag|sg}} eat{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|pres}} lemon{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}}}
  
====Sentence 3====
 
Yo mirí en el korason de la estrellería: I looked at the heart of the stars
 
  
^Yo<prn><pers><p1><sg><nom>/Prpers<prn><subj><p1><mf><sg>$ ^mirar<v><iv><pret><p1><sg>/look<vblex><pret><p1><sg>$ ^en<pr>/at<pr>/on<pr>/in<pr>$ ^el<det><def><m><sg>/the<det><def><sp>$ ^korason<n><m><sg>/heart<n><sg>$ ^de<pr>/of<pr>/from<pr>$ ^*la/*la$ ^estrellería<n><f><sg>/stars<n><sg>$^.<sent>/.<sent>$
 
 
No particular differences.
 
====Sentence 4====
 
Eyas no somportaría la dolor: They(fem) do not bear the pain
 
 
^Eyas<prn><pers><p3><f><pl><nom>/Prpers<prn><subj><p3><f><pl>$ ^no<adv>/not<adv>$ ^somportar<v><tv><cni><p1><sg>/bear<vblex><cni><p1><sg>$ ^*la/*la$ ^dolor<n><f><sg>/pain<n><sg>$^.<sent>/.<sent>$
 
 
No particular differences.
 
====Sentence 5====
 
Eyos kantan: They(masculine) sing
 
 
^Eyos<prn><pers><p3><m><pl><nom>/Prpers<prn><subj><p3><m><pl>$ ^kantar<v><iv><pres><p3><pl>/sing<vblex><pres><p3><pl>$^.<sent>/.<sent>$
 
 
No particular differences.
 
====Sentence 6====
 
Eya kantó: She sang
 
 
^Eya<prn><pers><p3><f><sg><nom>/Prpers<prn><subj><p3><f><sg>$ ^kantar<v><iv><pret><p3><sg>/sing<vblex><pret><p3><sg>$^.<sent>/.<sent>$
 
 
No particular differences.
 
====Sentence 7====
 
Yo bivire en Yisrael: I will live in Israel
 
 
^Yo<prn><pers><p1><sg><nom>/Prpers<prn><subj><p1><mf><sg>$ ^bivir<v><iv><fut><p1><sg>/live<vblex><fut><p1><sg>$ ^en<pr>/at<pr>/on<pr>/in<pr>$ ^Yisrael<np>/Israel<np>$^.<sent>/.<sent>$
 
 
No particular differences.
 
====Sentence 8====
 
Nozotros komeriamos en la kavané: We would eat in the coffeehouse
 
 
^Nozotros<prn><pers><p1><m><pl><nom>/Prpers<prn><subj><p1><mf><pl>$ ^komer<v><tv><cni><p1><pl>/eat<vblex><cni><p1><pl>$ ^en<pr>/at<pr>/on<pr>/in<pr>$ ^el<det><def><f><sg>/the<det><def><sp>$ ^kavané<n><f><sg>/coffeehouse<n><sg>$^.<sent>/.<sent>$
 
 
No particular differences.
 
====Sentence 9====
 
Tu biviras kuatro mezes: You will live four months
 
 
^Tu<prn><pers><p2><sg><nom>/Prpers<prn><subj><p2><mf><sg>$ ^bivir<v><iv><fut><p2><sg>/live<vblex><fut><p2><sg>$ ^kuatro<num>/four<num><pl>$ ^mes<n><m><pl>/month<n><pl>$^.<sent>/.<sent>$
 
 
No particular differences.
 
====Sentence 10====
 
Eyos no komieron el limón: They did not eat the lemon
 
 
^Eyos<prn><pers><p3><m><pl><nom>/Prpers<prn><subj><p3><m><pl>$ ^no<adv>/not<adv>$ ^komer<v><tv><pret><p3><pl>/eat<vblex><pret><p3><pl>$ ^el<det><def><m><sg>/the<det><def><sp>$ ^limón<n><m><sg>/lemon<n><sg>$^.<sent>/.<sent>$
 
 
No particular differences.
 
 
===Other Grammar===
 
The Ladino sentences I selected were generally similar in structure to their translations in English, so there are other grammatical differences between Ladino and English that weren't represented. For one, adjectives in Ladino come after the noun, not before: 'los djudios sefardim' translates as 'Sephardic Jews.' This is also an example of determiners existing in Ladino and not in English.
 
 
[[Category:Sp21_ContrastiveGrammars]] [[Category:Ladino]] [[Category:English]]
 
[[Category:Sp21_ContrastiveGrammars]] [[Category:Ladino]] [[Category:English]]

Latest revision as of 22:55, 17 May 2021

Lad-Eng Tests

Nouns without Determiners

  • (lad) la Espanya → (eng) Spain
  (lad) el<det><def><f><sg> Espanya<np><loc> → (eng) Spain<np><loc>
  • (lad) la Gresia → (eng) Greece
  (lad) el<det><def><f><sg> Gresia<np><loc> → (eng) Greece<np><loc>

Grammatical Gender

  • (lad) la estreyeriya → (eng) the stars
  (lad) el<det><def><f><sg> estreyeriya<n><f><sg> → (eng) the<det><def> star<n><pl>
  • (lad) la lingua → (eng) the language
  (lad) el<det><def><f><sg> lingua<n><f><sg> → (eng) the<det><def> language<n><sg>

Reflexive Verb Order

  • (lad) me mires → (eng) look at me
  (lad) me<prn><pers><p1><sg><pro> mirar<v><prs><p2><sg> → (eng) look<vblex><imp> prpers<prn><obj><p1><mf><sg>
  • (lad) te pario → (eng) she bore you
  (lad) te<prn><pers><p2><sg><pro> parir<v><ifi><p3><sg> → (eng) prpers<prn><subj><p3><f><sg> bear<vblex><past> prpers<prn><obj><p2><mf><sp>
  • (lad) te dio → (eng) she gave you
  (lad) te<prn><pers><p2><sg><pro> dar<v><ifi><p3><sg> → (eng) prpers<prn><subj><p3><f><sg> give<vblex><past> prpers<prn><obj><p2><mf><sp>

Adjective Order

  • (lad) los djudios sefardim → (eng) Sephardi Jews
  (lad) el<det><def><m><pl> djudio<n><m><pl> sefardim<adj><m><pl> → (eng) Sephardi<adj><pl> Jews<n><pl>
  • (lad) la luz santa → (eng) the holy light
  (lad) el<det><def><f><sg> luz<n><f><sg> santa<adj><f><sg> → (eng) the<det> holy<adj><sg> light<n><sg>

Conjugation Drops Words

  • (lad) mirava → (eng) he looked
  (lad) mirar<v><pii><p3><sg> → (eng) prpers<prn><subj><p3><m><sg> look<vblex><past>
  • (lad) komo limones → (eng) I eat lemons
  (lad) komer<v><pres><p1><sg> limon<n><pl> → (eng) prpers<prn><subj><p1><mf><sg> eat<vblex><pres> lemon<n><pl>