Ladino and English/Contrastive Grammar

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Lad-Eng Tests

Nouns without Determiners

  • (lad) la Espanya → (eng) Spain
  (lad) el<det><f> Espanya<np> → (eng) Spain<np>
  • (lad) la Gresia → (eng) Greece
  (lad) el<det><f> Gresia<np> → (eng) Greece<np>

Grammatical Gender

  • (lad) la estreyeriya → (eng) the stars
  (lad) el<det><f> estreyeriya<n><f> → (eng) the<det><def> stars<n>
  • (lad) la lingua → (eng) the language
  (lad) el<det><f> lingua<n><f> → (eng) the<det><def> language<n>

Reflexive Verb Order

  • (lad) me mires → (eng) look at me
  (lad) me<prn><pers><p1><sg><pro> mires<v><prs><p2><sg> → (eng) look<vblex><imp> prpers<prn><obj><p1><mf><sg>
  • (lad) te pario → (eng) she bore you
  (lad) te<prn><pers><p2><sg><pro> parir<v><pret><p3><sg> → (eng) prpers<prn><subj><p3><f><sg> bear<vblex><past> prpers<prn><obj><p2><mf><sp>
  • (lad) te dio → (eng) she gave you
  (lad) te<prn><pers><p2><sg><pro> dar<v><pret><p3><sg> → (eng) prpers<prn><subj><p3><f><sg> give<vblex><past> prpers<prn><obj><p2><mf><sp>

Adjective Order

  • (lad) los djudios sefardim → (eng) Sephardi Jews
  (lad) el<det><m><pl> djudio<n><m><pl> sefardim<adj><m><pl> → (eng) Sephardi<adj><pl> Jews<n><pl>
  • (lad) la luz santa → (eng) the holy light
  (lad) el<det><f> luz<n><f> santa<adj><f> → (eng) the<det> holy<adj> light<n>

Conjugation Drops Pronouns