Ladino and English/Lexical selection

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Lad → Eng

Case 1

En → in, on, by, at

Examples:

  • In
    • Istoria de los djudios en Meksiko - History of Jews IN Mexico
    • En 1521 - IN 1521
    • Ay komunidades notables en la sivdad de Méksiko - There are notable communities IN Mexico City
    • un projekto en inglez - a project IN English
    • el muriese en un taksi - he died IN a taxi
    • en el otomobil - in the car
  • On
    • La kuchundúrya uzada en la meza - the beet used ON the table
    • en un riel ekstra - ON an extraordinary rail
    • en el otobus - ON the bus
    • en el avyon - ON the plane
  • By
    • pasando el Bosfor en nave o en otomobil - passing the Strait of Istanbul BY boat or BY car
  • At
    • mirava en el cielo y en la estrellería - He was looking AT heaven and AT the stars
    • mirava en el syelo i en la estreyeriya - He was looking AT heaven and AT the stars


Rules: If en is followed by a number, el anyo", a city or country name, a language name, "un taksi", "el taksi", "un otomobil", or "el otomobil", it means in. If en is followed by "la meza" (or similar words like dining table "la sofra" or night table "el komodine") "un riel", "el otobus", "un otobus", "el avyon", or "un avyon", it means on. If en is followed by a form of transport with no 'el' or 'la', like "nave", "treno", "avyon", "otomobile", etc, it means by. It seems the use of at is archaic or barely used, and

Case 2

De → from, of

position de location - of