Difference between revisions of "Lakota/Grammar"

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(Demonstratives)
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* {{morphTest|kiŋ{{tag|def}}|}} (the)
 
* {{morphTest|kiŋ{{tag|def}}|}} (the)
 
* {{morphTest|waŋ{{tag|ind}}|}} (a)
 
* {{morphTest|waŋ{{tag|ind}}|}} (a)
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{{comment|Where's the part of speech tag?  Definite and indefinite articles are subtypes of determiner.  -JNW}}
  
 
==== Demonstratives ====
 
==== Demonstratives ====

Revision as of 21:14, 11 April 2022

This is a general documentation of Lakota Grammar.

Sources include Lakota Basic Structures, the Wikipedia on the Lakota language Wikipedia and David V Kaufmann's Lakota Grammar Handbook.

The above link is to the English-language Wikipedia's article on the Lakota language, not the Lakota-language Wikipedia. -Jonathan

Parts of Speech

Open Class

Nouns

Nouns <n> in Lakota appear in <subj><obj><v> order.

  • pȟasù<n> ↔ (nose)
  • tȟahù<n> ↔ (neck)
  • pȟanȟté<n> ↔ (forehead)
  • igmú<n> ↔ (cat)
  • šún<n> ↔ (dog)
  • maká<n> ↔ (skunk)
  • čhuŋwíyapehe<n> ↔ (grapes)
  • tȟaspáŋ<n> ↔ (apple)
  • zíškopela<n> ↔ (banana)
  • wažúšteča<n> ↔ (strawberry)
  • bló<n> ↔ (potato)
  • pšíŋ<n> ↔ (onion)
  • wanúŋ<n> ↔ (accident)
  • wóyazaŋ<n> ↔ (pain)
  • úta<n> ↔ (acorn)
  • ziŋtkázi<n> ↔ (canary)
  • mniwáŋca<n> ↔ (ocean)
  • waŋyéca<n> ↔ (firefly)
  • magáju<n> ↔ (rain)
  • skelúta<n> ↔ (oriole)
  • míla<n> ↔ (knife)
  • waskúyeca<n> ↔ (jam)

Verbs

Verbs <v> are an essential part of the Lakota language in that they are the only part of speech necessary in forming a sentence.

Why do the forms with subject tags and tensed translations in English have <inf>? Shouldn't they have some tense tag instead? -JNW

Also, I would separate out the paradigms into a grammar point or two. Here you only need a word or two with a <v> tag. -JNW

I think what you have as <du> should probably be <s_du1>. -JNW

  • máni<v><inf> ↔ (to walk)
  • máni<v><inf><s_sg1> ↔ mawáni (I walk)
  • máni<v><inf><s_sg2> ↔ mayáni (you walk)
  • máni<v><inf><s_sg3> ↔ máni (they walk)
  • máni<v><inf><du> ↔ uŋmáni (we two walk)
  • máni<v><inf><s_pl1> ↔ uŋmánipi (we all walk)
  • máni<v><inf><s_pl2> ↔ mayánipi (you all walk)
  • máni<v><inf><s_pl3> ↔ mánipi (they all walk)
  • waŋyáŋkA<v><inf> ↔ (to look at)
  • waŋyáŋkA<v><inf><s_sg1> ↔ mawaŋyáŋkA (I look at it)
  • waŋyáŋkA<v><inf><s_sg2> ↔ niwaŋyáŋkA (you look at it)
  • waŋyáŋkA<v><inf><s_sg3> ↔ waŋyáŋkA (they look at it)
  • waŋyáŋkA<v><inf><s_pl1> ↔ uŋwaŋyáŋkepi (I look at them)
  • waŋyáŋkA<v><inf><s_pl2> ↔ niwaŋyáŋkepi (you look at them)
  • waŋyáŋkA<v><inf><s_pl3> ↔ waŋwíčhayaŋkA (they look at them)
  • ičú<v><inf> ↔ (to take)
  • ičú<v><inf><s_sg1> ↔ iwáču (I take)
  • k'ú<v><inf> ↔ (to give to)
  • k'ú<v><inf><s_sg1> ↔ wak'ú (I give to)
  • watúkȟa<v><inf> ↔ (to be tired)
  • watúkȟa<v><inf><s_sg1> ↔ mawatúkȟa (I am tired)
  • watúkȟa<v><inf><s_sg2> ↔ niwatúkȟa (you are tired)
  • watúkȟa<v><inf><s_sg3> ↔ watúkȟa (they are tired)
  • watúkȟa<v><inf><du> ↔ uŋwatúkȟa (we two are tired)
  • watúkȟa<v><inf><s_pl1> ↔ uŋwatúkȟapi (we are tired)
  • watúkȟa<v><inf><s_pl2> ↔ niwatúkȟapi (you all are tired)
  • watúkȟa<v><inf><s_pl3> ↔ watúkȟapi (they all are tired)
  • lol'iȟ'aŋ<v><inf> ↔ (to cook)
  • íŋyaŋkA<v><inf> ↔ (to run)
  • škátA<v><inf> ↔ (to play)
  • ičháǧA<v><inf> ↔ (to grow)
  • ištíŋmA<v><inf> ↔ (to sleep)
  • íyotakA<v><inf> ↔ (to sit down)
  • čhéyA<v><inf> ↔ (to cry)
  • ípuzA<v><inf> ↔ (to be thirsty)
  • heyÁ<v><inf> ↔ (to say that)
  • šíčA<v><inf> ↔ (to be bad)

Adverbs

  • "adjectives" do not seem to exist and neither do "adverbs" ; the syntactical structure is better described as "topic and comment."

Closed Class

Postpositions

Lakota uses postpositions <post> rather than prepositions; they work in a similar way to English prepositions though they follow their noun complement. Adpositions occur after the head <n>.

  • mas'óphiye<n> (store) ↔ mas'óphiye él<n><post> (at the store)
    • Here the translation should not be in the morphTest, and the postposition should not have a <n> tag. Try making separate morphTests for the noun and the postposition. -JNW
  • Wówapi kiŋ wáglutapi kiŋ akáŋl<post> yaŋké. The book is sitting on the table.
  • Wóžuha kiŋ oyúŋke kiŋ oȟláthe<post> yaŋké. The bag is sitting under the bed.
  • Šiyútakaŋ kiŋ akáŋwowapi kiŋ isákhib<post> yaŋké. The laptop is sitting beside the desk.
  • Wíčazo kiŋ oákaŋke kiŋ itȟókab<post> yaŋké. The pencil is sitting in front of the chair.

Conjunctions

  • čhaŋké<cnjcoo> ↔ (and)
  • yuŋkȟáŋ<cnjcoo> ↔ (and)
  • k’éyaš<cnjcoo> ↔ (but)
  • na<cnjcoo> ↔ (joins nouns/phrases)

Articles

The definite article "kiŋ"<def> is used to denote "the", while the indefinite article "waŋ"<ind> is used in cases where "a" would be used in English.

  • kiŋ<def> ↔ (the)
  • waŋ<ind> ↔ (a)

Where's the part of speech tag? Definite and indefinite articles are subtypes of determiner. -JNW

Demonstratives

There are nine demonstratives <dem> in Lakota, and they can function as either determiners <det> or pronouns <prn>. They are dependent on plurality and distance from speakers and listeners.

  • <dem><prn><sg> ↔ (this)
  • <dem><prn><pl> ↔ lená (these)
  • <dem><prn><du> ↔ lenáos (these)
  • <dem><prn><sg> ↔ (that)
  • <dem><prn><pl> ↔ kaná (those)
  • <dem><prn><du> ↔ kanáos (those)
  • <dem><prn><sg> ↔ (this)
  • <dem><prn><pl> ↔ hená (these)
  • <dem><prn><du> ↔ henáos (these)

These are demonstrative pronouns, meaning that they are a subtype of pronoun. So the <prn> tag should be the first one. -JNW