Difference between revisions of "Magahi/Grammar"

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(Pronouns)
Line 2: Line 2:
  
 
== Plural Forms ==
 
== Plural Forms ==
* Plurality is expressed via the suffix "-an", and if the final vowel is long, shorten it:
+
* Plurality is expressed via the suffix "-अन", and if the final vowel is long, shorten it:
** {{morphTest|ghorā{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}|ghōran}}<ref name="grierson">Linguistic Survey of India</ref>
+
** {{morphTest|घोरा{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}|गोरन​​}}<ref name="grierson">Linguistic Survey of India</ref>
 +
** {{morphTest|बैल​{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}|बैलन}}<ref name="grierson">The Indo-Aryan Languages</ref>
 +
** {{morphTest|चोर​{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}|चोरन}}<ref name="grierson">The Indo-Aryan Languages</ref>
 +
 
 +
<!-- ** {{morphTest|ghorā{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}|ghōran}}<ref name="grierson">Linguistic Survey of India</ref>
 
** {{morphTest|bail{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}|bailan}}<ref name="grierson">The Indo-Aryan Languages</ref>
 
** {{morphTest|bail{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}|bailan}}<ref name="grierson">The Indo-Aryan Languages</ref>
** {{morphTest|cor{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}|coran}}<ref name="grierson">The Indo-Aryan Languages</ref>
+
** {{morphTest|cor{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}|coran}}<ref name="grierson">The Indo-Aryan Languages</ref> -->
* It can also be expressed by adding the word "sab" or "log" for human noun after the singular form:
+
 
** {{morphTest|phal{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}|phal sab}}<ref name="grierson">The Indo-Aryan Languages</ref>
+
* It can also be expressed by adding the word "सब" or "लोग" for human noun after the singular form:
 +
** {{morphTest|फल{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}|फल सब}}<ref name="grierson">The Indo-Aryan Languages</ref>
 +
** {{morphTest|राजा{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}|राजा लोग}}<ref name="grierson">The Indo-Aryan Languages</ref>
 +
** {{morphTest|माली{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}|माली लोग}}<ref name="grierson">The Indo-Aryan Languages</ref>
 +
 
 +
<!-- ** {{morphTest|phal{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}|phal sab}}<ref name="grierson">The Indo-Aryan Languages</ref>
 
** {{morphTest|rājā{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}|rājā log}}<ref name="grierson">The Indo-Aryan Languages</ref>
 
** {{morphTest|rājā{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}|rājā log}}<ref name="grierson">The Indo-Aryan Languages</ref>
** {{morphTest|mālī{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}|mālī log}}<ref name="grierson">The Indo-Aryan Languages</ref>
+
** {{morphTest|mālī{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}|mālī log}}<ref name="grierson">The Indo-Aryan Languages</ref> -->
  
 
== Case ==
 
== Case ==
 
None of these cases can be applied to the plural form of a noun.
 
None of these cases can be applied to the plural form of a noun.
* You can form the locative case by adding the suffix "-ē." If the noun ended in "ā", it gets removed and if it ended in "ī" or "ū," the vowel gets shortened.
+
* You can form the locative case by adding the suffix "-ē". If the noun ended in "ā", it gets removed and if it ended in "ī" or "ū", the vowel gets shortened.
** {{morphTest|ghorā{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}|ghōrē}}<ref name="grierson">Linguistic Survey of India</ref>
+
** {{morphTest|घोरा{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}|घोरे}}<ref name="grierson">Linguistic Survey of India</ref>
 +
** {{morphTest|बैल​{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}|बैले}}<ref name="grierson">The Indo-Aryan Languages</ref>
 +
** {{morphTest|चोर{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}|चोरे}}<ref name="grierson">The Indo-Aryan</ref>
 +
 
 +
<!-- ** {{morphTest|ghorā{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}|ghōrē}}<ref name="grierson">Linguistic Survey of India</ref>
 
** {{morphTest|bail{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}|bailē}}<ref name="grierson">The Indo-Aryan Languages</ref>
 
** {{morphTest|bail{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}|bailē}}<ref name="grierson">The Indo-Aryan Languages</ref>
** {{morphTest|cor{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}|corē}}<ref name="grierson">The Indo-Aryan</ref>
+
** {{morphTest|cor{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}|corē}}<ref name="grierson">The Indo-Aryan</ref> -->
  
 
* You can form the instrumental case by adding the suffix "-ē̃." The same process of removing or shortening vowels as in the locative applies.
 
* You can form the instrumental case by adding the suffix "-ē̃." The same process of removing or shortening vowels as in the locative applies.
** {{morphTest|phal{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}|phalē̃}}<ref name="grierson">The Indo-Aryan Languages</ref>
+
** {{morphTest|फल​{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}|फलेँ}}<ref name="grierson">The Indo-Aryan Languages</ref>
 +
** {{morphTest|राजा{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}|राजेँ}}<ref name="grierson">The Indo-Aryan Languages</ref>
 +
** {{morphTest|माली{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}|मालिएँँ}}<ref name="grierson">The Indo-Aryan Languages</ref>
 +
 
 +
<!-- ** {{morphTest|phal{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}|phalē̃}}<ref name="grierson">The Indo-Aryan Languages</ref>
 
** {{morphTest|rājā{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}|rājē̃}}<ref name="grierson">The Indo-Aryan Languages</ref>
 
** {{morphTest|rājā{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}|rājē̃}}<ref name="grierson">The Indo-Aryan Languages</ref>
** {{morphTest|mālī{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}|māliē̃}}<ref name="grierson">The Indo-Aryan Languages</ref>
+
** {{morphTest|mālī{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}|māliē̃}}<ref name="grierson">The Indo-Aryan Languages</ref> -->
  
 
* Other cases may be indicated using postpositions.
 
* Other cases may be indicated using postpositions.
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== Personal Pronouns ==
 
== Personal Pronouns ==
 
{|class="wikitable sortable"
 
{|class="wikitable sortable"
 +
! Person !! Singular!! Sg.Genitive !! Sg. Oblique !! Plural
 +
|-
 +
! First
 +
| हम|| हमार|| हमारा|| हमानि
 +
|-
 +
! Second
 +
| तु|| तोर|| तोरा|| तोहनि
 +
|-
 +
! Second Honorific
 +
| || तोहार|| तोहारा||
 +
|-
 +
! Third Proximate
 +
| | इ | एकर || एकारा || इ (सब)
 +
|-
 +
! Third Proximate Honorific
 +
| || इनकर ​|| इनकारा||
 +
|-
 +
! Third Non-Proximate
 +
|  | उ | ओकर || ओकारा || उ (सब)
 +
|-
 +
! Third Non-Proximate Honorific
 +
| || उनकर || उनकारा ||
 +
|}
 +
 +
<!-- {|class="wikitable sortable"
 
! Person !! Singular!! Sg.Genitive !! Sg. Oblique !! Plural
 
! Person !! Singular!! Sg.Genitive !! Sg. Oblique !! Plural
 
|-
 
|-
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! Third Non-Proximate Honorific
 
! Third Non-Proximate Honorific
 
| || unkar || unkara||  
 
| || unkar || unkara||  
 
+
|} -->
|}
 
  
 
= Demonstratives =
 
= Demonstratives =
  
 
= Verbs =
 
= Verbs =

Revision as of 17:04, 4 March 2021

Nouns

Plural Forms

  • Plurality is expressed via the suffix "-अन", and if the final vowel is long, shorten it:
    • घोरा<n><pl> ↔ गोरन​​[1]
    • बैल​<n><pl> ↔ बैलन[1]
    • चोर​<n><pl> ↔ चोरन[1]


  • It can also be expressed by adding the word "सब" or "लोग" for human noun after the singular form:
    • फल<n><pl> ↔ फल सब[1]
    • राजा<n><pl> ↔ राजा लोग[1]
    • माली<n><pl> ↔ माली लोग[1]


Case

None of these cases can be applied to the plural form of a noun.

  • You can form the locative case by adding the suffix "-ē". If the noun ended in "ā", it gets removed and if it ended in "ī" or "ū", the vowel gets shortened.
    • घोरा<n><pl> ↔ घोरे[1]
    • बैल​<n><pl> ↔ बैले[1]
    • चोर<n><pl> ↔ चोरे[1]


  • You can form the instrumental case by adding the suffix "-ē̃." The same process of removing or shortening vowels as in the locative applies.
    • फल​<n><pl> ↔ फलेँ[1]
    • राजा<n><pl> ↔ राजेँ[1]
    • माली<n><pl> ↔ मालिएँँ[1]


  • Other cases may be indicated using postpositions.

Pronouns

Personal Pronouns

Person Singular Sg.Genitive Sg. Oblique Plural
First हम हमार हमारा हमानि
Second तु तोर तोरा तोहनि
Second Honorific तोहार तोहारा
Third Proximate इ | एकर एकारा इ (सब)
Third Proximate Honorific इनकर ​ इनकारा
Third Non-Proximate उ | ओकर ओकारा उ (सब)
Third Non-Proximate Honorific उनकर उनकारा


Demonstratives

Verbs

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 Linguistic Survey of India