Difference between revisions of "Magahi/Grammar"

From LING073
Jump to: navigation, search
Line 23: Line 23:
 
None of these cases can be applied to the plural form of a noun.
 
None of these cases can be applied to the plural form of a noun.
 
* You can form the locative case by adding the suffix "-ē". If the noun ended in "ā", it gets removed and if it ended in "ī" or "ū", the vowel gets shortened.
 
* You can form the locative case by adding the suffix "-ē". If the noun ended in "ā", it gets removed and if it ended in "ī" or "ū", the vowel gets shortened.
** {{morphTest|घोरा{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}|घोरे}}<ref name="grierson">Linguistic Survey of India</ref>
+
** {{morphTest|घोरा{{tag|n}}{{tag|loc}}|घोरे}}<ref name="grierson">Linguistic Survey of India</ref>
** {{morphTest|बैल​{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}|बैले}}<ref name="grierson">The Indo-Aryan Languages</ref>
+
** {{morphTest|बैल​{{tag|n}}{{tag|loc}}|बैले}}<ref name="grierson">The Indo-Aryan Languages</ref>
** {{morphTest|चोर{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}|चोरे}}<ref name="grierson">The Indo-Aryan</ref>
+
** {{morphTest|चोर{{tag|n}}{{tag|loc}}|चोरे}}<ref name="grierson">The Indo-Aryan</ref>
  
 
<!-- ** {{morphTest|ghorā{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}|ghōrē}}<ref name="grierson">Linguistic Survey of India</ref>
 
<!-- ** {{morphTest|ghorā{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}|ghōrē}}<ref name="grierson">Linguistic Survey of India</ref>
Line 32: Line 32:
  
 
* You can form the instrumental case by adding the suffix "-ē̃." The same process of removing or shortening vowels as in the locative applies.
 
* You can form the instrumental case by adding the suffix "-ē̃." The same process of removing or shortening vowels as in the locative applies.
** {{morphTest|फल​{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}|फलेँ}}<ref name="grierson">The Indo-Aryan Languages</ref>
+
** {{morphTest|फल​{{tag|n}}{{tag|ins}}|फलेँ}}<ref name="grierson">The Indo-Aryan Languages</ref>
** {{morphTest|राजा{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}|राजेँ}}<ref name="grierson">The Indo-Aryan Languages</ref>
+
** {{morphTest|राजा{{tag|n}}{{tag|ins}}|राजेँ}}<ref name="grierson">The Indo-Aryan Languages</ref>
** {{morphTest|माली{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}|मालिएँँ}}<ref name="grierson">The Indo-Aryan Languages</ref>
+
** {{morphTest|माली{{tag|n}}{{tag|ins}}|मालिएँँ}}<ref name="grierson">The Indo-Aryan Languages</ref>
  
 
<!-- ** {{morphTest|phal{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}|phalē̃}}<ref name="grierson">The Indo-Aryan Languages</ref>
 
<!-- ** {{morphTest|phal{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}|phalē̃}}<ref name="grierson">The Indo-Aryan Languages</ref>
Line 40: Line 40:
 
** {{morphTest|mālī{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}|māliē̃}}<ref name="grierson">The Indo-Aryan Languages</ref> -->
 
** {{morphTest|mālī{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}|māliē̃}}<ref name="grierson">The Indo-Aryan Languages</ref> -->
  
* Other cases may be indicated using postpositions.
+
* Other cases may be indicated using postpositions. When doing so, the noun must be in the oblique form. If it ends in a vowel, the oblique is the same as the nominative. If the noun ends in a consonant, then you can optionally add the "-e" suffix.
 +
** {{morphTest|घोरा​{{tag|n}}{{tag|obl}}|घोरा के}}<ref name="grierson">The Indo-Aryan Languages</ref>
 +
** {{morphTest|बैल{{tag|n}}{{tag|obl}}|बैले के}}<ref name="grierson">The Indo-Aryan Languages</ref>
 +
** {{morphTest|चोर{{tag|n}}{{tag|obl}}|चोर के}}<ref name="grierson">The Indo-Aryan Languages</ref>
 +
 
 +
<!-- ** {{morphTest|ghora{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}|ghora ke}}<ref name="grierson">The Indo-Aryan Languages</ref>
 +
** {{morphTest|bail{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}|baile ke}}<ref name="grierson">The Indo-Aryan Languages</ref>
 +
** {{morphTest|cor{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}|cor ke}}<ref name="grierson">The Indo-Aryan Languages</ref> -->
  
 
= Pronouns =
 
= Pronouns =

Revision as of 18:07, 4 March 2021

Nouns

Plural Forms

  • Plurality is expressed via the suffix "-अन", and if the final vowel is long, shorten it:
    • घोरा<n><pl> ↔ गोरन​​[1]
    • बैल​<n><pl> ↔ बैलन[1]
    • चोर​<n><pl> ↔ चोरन[1]


  • It can also be expressed by adding the word "सब" or "लोग" for human noun after the singular form:
    • फल<n><pl> ↔ फल सब[1]
    • राजा<n><pl> ↔ राजा लोग[1]
    • माली<n><pl> ↔ माली लोग[1]


Case

None of these cases can be applied to the plural form of a noun.

  • You can form the locative case by adding the suffix "-ē". If the noun ended in "ā", it gets removed and if it ended in "ī" or "ū", the vowel gets shortened.
    • घोरा<n><loc> ↔ घोरे[1]
    • बैल​<n><loc> ↔ बैले[1]
    • चोर<n><loc> ↔ चोरे[1]


  • You can form the instrumental case by adding the suffix "-ē̃." The same process of removing or shortening vowels as in the locative applies.
    • फल​<n><ins> ↔ फलेँ[1]
    • राजा<n><ins> ↔ राजेँ[1]
    • माली<n><ins> ↔ मालिएँँ[1]


  • Other cases may be indicated using postpositions. When doing so, the noun must be in the oblique form. If it ends in a vowel, the oblique is the same as the nominative. If the noun ends in a consonant, then you can optionally add the "-e" suffix.
    • घोरा​<n><obl> ↔ घोरा के[1]
    • बैल<n><obl> ↔ बैले के[1]
    • चोर<n><obl> ↔ चोर के[1]


Pronouns

Personal Pronouns

Person Singular Sg.Genitive Sg. Oblique Plural
First हम हमार हमारा हमानि
Second तु तोर तोरा तोहनि
Second Honorific तोहार तोहारा
Third Proximate एकर एकारा इ (सब)
Third Proximate Honorific इनकर ​ इनकारा
Third Non-Proximate ओकर ओकारा उ (सब)
Third Non-Proximate Honorific उनकर उनकारा

Demonstratives

Demonstrative Interrogative Relative Correlative
Nominative इ/उ का/के (human) जे से/ते
Genitive एकर/ओकर केकर जेकर सेकर/तेकर
Oblique एकरा/ओकरा केकरा जेकरा सेकरा/तेकरा
Attributive इ/उ के/कौन जे/जौन से
Adjectival ऐसन/ऑइसन कैसन जैसन तैसान
Quantitative एतना/ओतना केतना जेतना तेतन
Manner adv. ऐसे/ओइसे कैसे जैसे तैसे
Place adv. इहाँ/उहाँ कहाँ जहाँ त्यहाँ
Time adv. अब कब जब तब


Verbs

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 Linguistic Survey of India