Magahi/Grammar

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Nouns

Plural Forms

  • Plurality is expressed via the suffix "-an", and if the final vowel is long, shorten it:
    • ghorā<n><pl> ↔ ghōran[1]
    • bail<n><pl> ↔ bailan[1]
    • cor<n><pl> ↔ coran[1]
  • It can also be expressed by adding the word "sab" or "log" for human noun after the singular form:
    • phal<n><pl> ↔ phal sab[1]
    • rājā<n><pl> ↔ rājā log[1]
    • mālī<n><pl> ↔ mālī log[1]

Case

None of these cases can be applied to the plural form of a noun.

  • You can form the locative case by adding the suffix "-ē." If the noun ended in "ā", it gets removed and if it ended in "ī" or "ū," the vowel gets shortened.
    • ghorā<n><pl> ↔ ghōrē[1]
    • bail<n><pl> ↔ bailē[1]
    • cor<n><pl> ↔ corē[1]
  • You can form the instrumental case by adding the suffix "-ē̃." The same process of removing or shortening vowels as in the locative applies.
    • phal<n><pl> ↔ phalē̃[1]
    • rājā<n><pl> ↔ rājē̃[1]
    • mālī<n><pl> ↔ māliē̃[1]
  • Other cases may be indicated using postpositions.

Pronouns

case name ~meaning tag possible forms алма "apple" гүл "flower"
nominative subject <nom> алма<n><nom> ↔ алма гүл<n><nom> ↔ гүл
accusative definite direct object <acc> ны, ни, ну, нү, ды, ди, ду, дү, ты, ти, ту, тү алма<n><acc> ↔ алманы гүл<n><acc> ↔ гүлдү
genitive possessor <gen> нын, нин, нун, нүн, дын, дин, дун, дүн, тын, тин, тун, түн алма<n><gen> ↔ алманын гүл<n><gen> ↔ гүлдүн
dative "to" <dat> га, го, ге, гө, ка, ко, ке, кө алма<n><dat> ↔ алмага гүл<n><dat> ↔ гүлгө
locative "at, in on" <loc> да, до, де, дө, та, то, те, тө алма<n><loc> ↔ алмада гүл<n><loc> ↔ гүлдө
ablative "from" <abl> дан, дон, ден, дөн, тан, тон, тен, төн алма<n><abl> ↔ алмадан гүл<n><abl> ↔ гүлдөн

Demonstratives

Verbs

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 Linguistic Survey of India