From LING073
Revision as of 18:04, 4 March 2021 by Wball1 (talk | contribs)

Jump to: navigation, search


Plural Forms

  • Plurality is expressed via the suffix "-अन", and if the final vowel is long, shorten it:
    • घोरा<n><pl> ↔ गोरन​​[1]
    • बैल​<n><pl> ↔ बैलन[1]
    • चोर​<n><pl> ↔ चोरन[1]

  • It can also be expressed by adding the word "सब" or "लोग" for human noun after the singular form:
    • फल<n><pl> ↔ फल सब[1]
    • राजा<n><pl> ↔ राजा लोग[1]
    • माली<n><pl> ↔ माली लोग[1]


None of these cases can be applied to the plural form of a noun.

  • You can form the locative case by adding the suffix "-ē". If the noun ended in "ā", it gets removed and if it ended in "ī" or "ū", the vowel gets shortened.
    • घोरा<n><pl> ↔ घोरे[1]
    • बैल​<n><pl> ↔ बैले[1]
    • चोर<n><pl> ↔ चोरे[1]

  • You can form the instrumental case by adding the suffix "-ē̃." The same process of removing or shortening vowels as in the locative applies.
    • फल​<n><pl> ↔ फलेँ[1]
    • राजा<n><pl> ↔ राजेँ[1]
    • माली<n><pl> ↔ मालिएँँ[1]

  • Other cases may be indicated using postpositions.


Personal Pronouns

Person Singular Sg.Genitive Sg. Oblique Plural
First हम हमार हमारा हमानि
Second तु तोर तोरा तोहनि
Second Honorific तोहार तोहारा
Third Proximate इ | एकर एकारा इ (सब)
Third Proximate Honorific इनकर ​ इनकारा
Third Non-Proximate उ | ओकर ओकारा उ (सब)
Third Non-Proximate Honorific उनकर उनकारा



  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 Linguistic Survey of India