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Plural Forms

  • Plurality is expressed via the suffix "-अन", and if the final vowel is long, shorten it:
    • घोरा<n><pl> ↔ गोरन​​[1]
    • बैल​<n><pl> ↔ बैलन[1]
    • चोर​<n><pl> ↔ चोरन[1]

  • It can also be expressed by adding the word "सब" or "लोग" for human noun after the singular form:
    • फल<n><pl> ↔ फल सब[1]
    • राजा<n><pl> ↔ राजा लोग[1]
    • माली<n><pl> ↔ माली लोग[1]


None of these cases can be applied to the plural form of a noun.

  • You can form the locative case by adding the suffix "-ē". If the noun ended in "ā", it gets removed and if it ended in "ī" or "ū", the vowel gets shortened.
    • घोरा<n><pl> ↔ घोरे[1]
    • बैल​<n><pl> ↔ बैले[1]
    • चोर<n><pl> ↔ चोरे[1]

  • You can form the instrumental case by adding the suffix "-ē̃." The same process of removing or shortening vowels as in the locative applies.
    • फल​<n><pl> ↔ फलेँ[1]
    • राजा<n><pl> ↔ राजेँ[1]
    • माली<n><pl> ↔ मालिएँँ[1]

  • Other cases may be indicated using postpositions.


Personal Pronouns

Person Singular Sg.Genitive Sg. Oblique Plural
First हम हमार हमारा हमानि
Second तु तोर तोरा तोहनि
Second Honorific तोहार तोहारा
Third Proximate एकर एकारा इ (सब)
Third Proximate Honorific इनकर ​ इनकारा
Third Non-Proximate ओकर ओकारा उ (सब)
Third Non-Proximate Honorific उनकर उनकारा


Demonstrative Interrogative Relative Correlative
Nominative इ/उ का/के (human) जे से/ते
Genitive एकर/ओकर केकर जेकर सेकर/तेकर
Oblique एकरा/ओकरा केकरा जेकरा सेकरा/तेकरा
Attributive इ/उ के/कौन जे/जौन से
Adjectival ऐसन/ऑइसन कैसन जैसन तैसान
Quantitative एतना/ओतना केतना जेतना तेतन
Manner adv. ऐसे/ओइसे कैसे जैसे तैसे
Place adv. इहाँ/उहाँ कहाँ जहाँ त्यहाँ
Time adv. अब कब जब तब


  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 Linguistic Survey of India