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Plural Forms

  • Plurality is expressed via the suffix "-अन", and if the final vowel is long, shorten it:
    • घोरा<n><pl> ↔ गोरन​​[1]
    • बैल​<n><pl> ↔ बैलन[1]
    • चोर​<n><pl> ↔ चोरन[1]

  • It can also be expressed by adding the word "सब" or "लोग" for human noun after the singular form:
    • फल<n><pl> ↔ फल सब[1]
    • राजा<n><pl> ↔ राजा लोग[1]
    • माली<n><pl> ↔ माली लोग[1]


None of these cases can be applied to the plural form of a noun.

  • You can form the locative case by adding the suffix "-ē". If the noun ended in "ā", it gets removed and if it ended in "ī" or "ū", the vowel gets shortened.
    • घोरा<n><loc> ↔ घोरे[1]
    • बैल​<n><loc> ↔ बैले[1]
    • चोर<n><loc> ↔ चोरे[1]

  • You can form the instrumental case by adding the suffix "-ē̃." The same process of removing or shortening vowels as in the locative applies.
    • फल​<n><ins> ↔ फलेँ[1]
    • राजा<n><ins> ↔ राजेँ[1]
    • माली<n><ins> ↔ मालिएँँ[1]

  • Other cases may be indicated using postpositions. When doing so, the noun must be in the oblique form. If it ends in a vowel, the oblique is the same as the nominative. If the noun ends in a consonant, then you can optionally add the "-e" suffix.
    • घोरा​<n><obl> ↔ घोरा के[1]
    • बैल<n><obl> ↔ बैले के[1]
    • चोर<n><obl> ↔ चोर के[1]


Personal Pronouns

Person Singular Sg.Genitive Sg. Oblique Plural
First हम हमार हमारा हमानि
Second तु तोर तोरा तोहनि
Second Honorific तोहार तोहारा
Third Proximate एकर एकारा इ (सब)
Third Proximate Honorific इनकर ​ इनकारा
Third Non-Proximate ओकर ओकारा उ (सब)
Third Non-Proximate Honorific उनकर उनकारा


Demonstrative Interrogative Relative Correlative
Nominative इ/उ का/के (human) जे से/ते
Genitive एकर/ओकर केकर जेकर सेकर/तेकर
Oblique एकरा/ओकरा केकरा जेकरा सेकरा/तेकरा
Attributive इ/उ के/कौन जे/जौन से
Adjectival ऐसन/ऑइसन कैसन जैसन तैसान
Quantitative एतना/ओतना केतना जेतना तेतन
Manner adv. ऐसे/ओइसे कैसे जैसे तैसे
Place adv. इहाँ/उहाँ कहाँ जहाँ त्यहाँ
Time adv. अब कब जब तब


  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 Linguistic Survey of India