Difference between revisions of "Magahi and English/Contrastive Grammar"

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^कोई/koī<adj>$ ^जङगल/jaṅgal<n>/jaṅgal<n><obl>$ ^में/meṃ<post>$ ^एगो/ego<adj>$ ^साधू/sādhū<n>/sādhū<n><obl>/sādhū<n><obl>$ ^रह/raHa<v><pres>$ ^हलन/<aux><v><past><o_p3><low>$^./.<sent>$
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== mag-eng tests ==
 +
* {{transferTest|fra|spa|Je le mangerai|Yo lo comeré}} ("I'll eat it.")
 +
*: {{transferMorphTest|fra|spa|je{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|nom}} le{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|m}}{{tag|acc}} manger{{tag|v}}{{tag|tv}}{{tag|fut}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|sg}}|yo{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|nom}} lo{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|m}}{{tag|acc}} comer{{tag|v}}{{tag|tv}}{{tag|fut}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|sg}}}}
  
^उनक/*उनक$ ^भीरी/bhīrī<adj>$ ^एगो/ego<adj>$ ^राजा/rājā<n>/rājā<n><obl>/rājā<n><obl>$ ^भुलाते/bhulāte<n>/bhulāte<v><pres>/bhulāte<n><obl>/bhulāte<n><obl>$ ^जा/jā<v><pres>$ ^पहुंचलन/*पहुंचलन$ ^आउ/āu<cnj>$ ^साधू/sādhū<n>/sādhū<n><obl>/sādhū<n><obl>$ ^के/ke<post>$ ^देख/dekh<v><pres>/dekh<v><pres><s_p2>$ ^के/ke<post>$ ^पाओं/pāoṃ<n>/pāoṃ<n><obl>$ ^लाग/lāg<v><pres>/lāg<v><pres><s_p2>$ ^के/ke<post>$ ^बैठ/baiṭh<v><pres>/baiṭh<v><pres><s_p2>$ ^गेलन/ge<v><past><o_p3><low>$^./.<sent>$
+
== Noun Tags ==
 +
Locative
 +
* {{transferTest|mag|eng|ghore|horse}}
 +
*: {{transferMorphTest|mag|eng|ghorā{{tag|n}}{{tag|loc}}|horse{{tag|n}}}}
  
^साधू/sādhū<n>/sādhū<n><obl>/sādhū<n><obl>$ ^उनका/*उनका$ ^पिआसल/piāsal<adj>$ ^जान/jān<v><pres>/jān<v><pres><s_p2>$ ^के/ke<post>$ ^थोडाऐसन/*थोडाऐसन$ ^जङगल/jaṅgal<n>/jaṅgal<n><obl>$ ^के/ke<post>$ ^फर/phar<n>/phar<n><obl>$ ^खाए/khā<v><inf>/khā<v><hab><obl>$ ^ला/lā<post>$ ^देलथीन/de<v><past><o_p3><hi>/de<v><past><s_p2><o_p3><hi>$^,/,<cm>$ ^आउ/āu<cnj>$ ^पानी/pānī<n>/pānī<n><obl>/pānī<n><obl>$ ^पीला/pī<v><perf><obl>$ ^देलथीन/de<v><past><o_p3><hi>/de<v><past><s_p2><o_p3><hi>$^./.<sent>$
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* {{transferTest|mag|eng|baile|bull}}
 +
*: {{transferMorphTest|mag|eng|bail{{tag|n}}{{tag|loc}}|bull{{tag|n}}}}
  
^राजा/rājā<n>/rājā<n><obl>/rājā<n><obl>$ ^खा/khā<v><pres>$ ^के/ke<post>$ ^आउ/āu<cnj>$ ^पानी/pānī<n>/pānī<n><obl>/pānī<n><obl>$ ^पी/pī<v><pres>$ ^के/ke<post>$ ^बहुत/baHut<adv>$ ^खुस/khus<adj>$ ^भेलन/bhe<v><past><o_p3><low>$^,/,<cm>$ ^आउ/āu<cnj>$ ^ठनढा/ṭhanḍhā<adj>$ ^हवा/*हवा$ ^में/meṃ<post>$ ^थोडे/thoṛe<adj>$ ^बेर/ber<n>/ber<n><obl>$ ^बैठला/baiṭh<v><perf><obl>$ ^से/se<post>$ ^थकैनी/thakainī<n>/thakainī<n><obl>/thakainī<n><obl>$ ^निकल/*निकल$ ^गेलैन/ge<v><past><o_p3><hi>$^./.<sent>$
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* {{transferTest|mag|eng|core|thief}}
 +
*: {{transferMorphTest|mag|eng|cor{{tag|n}}{{tag|loc}}|thief{{tag|n}}}}
  
^तब/<prn><cor><time>/tab<adv>$ ^राजा/rājā<n>/rājā<n><obl>/rājā<n><obl>$ ^साधू/sādhū<n>/sādhū<n><obl>/sādhū<n><obl>$ ^जी/jī<post>$ ^से/se<post>$ ^हाथ/Hāth<n>/Hāth<n><obl>$ ^जोर/jor<v><pres>/jor<v><pres><s_p2>$ ^के/ke<post>$ ^पुछलन/puch<v><past><o_p3><low>$ ^के/ke<post>$^,/,<cm>$ ^"/"<quot>$^महाराज/maHārāj<n>/maHārāj<n><obl>$^!/!<sent>$ ^हमरा/<prn><pers><p1><sg><obl>$ ^कुछ/kuch<det>$ ^सिखावन/*सिखावन$ ^के/ke<post>$ ^बात/bāt<n>/bāt<n><obl>$ ^कहीं/kaH<v><pres><s_p1><o_p2><hi>$^,/,<cm>$ ^के/ke<post>$ ^जेकरा/<prn><rel><obl>$ ^से/se<post>$ ^हमर/*हमर$ ^कलेआन/kaleān<n>/kaleān<n><obl>$ ^होय/*होय$^./.<sent>$^"/"<quot>$
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Instrumental
 +
* {{transferTest|mag|eng|phaleṃ|fruit}}
 +
*: {{transferMorphTest|mag|eng|phal{{tag|n}}{{tag|inst}}|fruit{{tag|n}}}}
  
^साधू/sādhū<n>/sādhū<n><obl>/sādhū<n><obl>$ ^जी/jī<post>$ ^बोललन/bol<v><past><o_p3><low>$ ^के/ke<post>$^,/,<cm>$ ^"/"<quot>$^ई/<prn><pers><prx><p3><sg>$ ^चारो/cāro<adj>$ ^बात/bāt<n>/bāt<n><obl>$ ^के/ke<post>$ ^इआद/iād<n>/iād<n><obl>$ ^रख/rakh<v><pres>/rakh<v><pres><s_p2>$^./.<sent>$
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* {{transferTest|mag|eng|rāje|king}}
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*: {{transferMorphTest|mag|eng|rājā{{tag|n}}{{tag|inst}}|king{{tag|n}}}}
  
^पहिला/paHilā<n>/paHilā<n><obl>/paHilā<n><obl>$ ^ई/<prn><pers><prx><p3><sg>$ ^के/ke<post>$^,/,<cm>$ ^नरायन/*नरायन$ ^सामी/sāmī<n>/sāmī<n><obl>/sāmī<n><obl>$ ^के/ke<post>$ ^नाम/nām<n>/nām<n><obl>$ ^हर/Har<n>/Har<det>/Har<n><obl>$ ^दम/dam<n>/dam<n><obl>$ ^जपना/*जपना$^./.<sent>$
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* {{transferTest|mag|eng|mālieṃ|gardener}}
 +
*: {{transferMorphTest|mag|eng|mālī{{tag|n}}{{tag|inst}}|gardener{{tag|n}}}}
  
^दूसर/dūsar<n>/dūsar<n><obl>$ ^ई/<prn><pers><prx><p3><sg>$ ^के/ke<post>$^,/,<cm>$ ^सब/*सब$ ^जीउ/*जीउ$ ^पर/par<post>$ ^दया/*दया$ ^रखना/*रखना$^./.<sent>$
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== Postpositions ==
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Magahi doesn't have prepositions; instead it has postpositions.<br>
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* {{transferTest|mag|eng|jaṅgal meṃ|in the forest.}}
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*: {{transferMorphTest|mag|eng|jaṅgal{{tag|n}} meṃ{{tag|post}}|in{{tag|pr}} the{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}}{{tag|sp}} forest{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}}}
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* {{transferTest|mag|eng|gādhū ke dekh ke.|seeing the saint.}}
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*: {{transferMorphTest|mag|eng|gādhū{{tag|n}}{{tag|obl}} ke{{tag|post}} dekh{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}} ke{{tag|post}}|see{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|pprs}} the{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}}{{tag|sp}} saint{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}}}
 +
* {{transferTest|mag|eng|pāoṃ lāg ke.|touching the feet.}}
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*: {{transferMorphTest|mag|eng|pāoṃ{{tag|n}}{{tag|obl}} lāg{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}} ke{{tag|post}}|touch{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|ger}} the{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}}{{tag|sp}} foot{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}}}}
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Notice the first adds a postposition after "saint" where the english one doesn't. <br/>
  
^तीसर/tīsar<n>/tīsar<n><obl>$ ^ई/<prn><pers><prx><p3><sg>$ ^के/ke<post>$^,/,<cm>$ ^अन/*अन$ ^कर/*कर$ ^चूक/*चूक$ ^के/ke<post>$ ^छमा/*छमा$ ^करना/*करना$^./.<sent>$
+
Sometimes Magahi sentences make do without a preposition where English needs one.</br>
 +
* {{transferTest|mag|eng|neāw se rāj karnā jaṅgal meṃ baiṭh ke bhī bes hai.|To rule with justice is better than sitting in a forest.}}
 +
*: {{transferMorphTest|mag|eng|neāw{{tag|n}}{{tag|obl}} se{{tag|post}} rāj{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}} karnā{{tag|v}} jaṅgal{{tag|n}}{{tag|obl}} meṃ{{tag|post}} baiṭh{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}} ke{{tag|post}} bhī{{tag|adv}} bes{{tag|adj}} hai{{tag|aux}}{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|o_p3}}{{tag|low}}|to{{tag|pr}} rule{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|inf}} with{{tag|pr}} justice{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}} be{{tag|vbser}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|sg}} good{{tag|adj}}{{tag|sint}}{{tag|comp}} than{{tag|cnjsub}} sit{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|ger}} in{{tag|pr}} a{{tag|det}}{{tag|ind}}{{tag|sg}} forest{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}}}
  
^आउ/āu<cnj>$ ^चाउठा/*चाउठा$ ^ई/<prn><pers><prx><p3><sg>$ ^के/ke<post>$^,/,<cm>$ ^कभी/*कभी$ ^कोई/koī<adj>$ ^बात/bāt<n>/bāt<n><obl>$ ^के/ke<post>$ ^घमण/*घमण$्^ड/*ड$ ^ना/*ना$ ^करन/*करन$^./.<sent>$
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== Verbs ==
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=== Conjugation ===
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Magahi verbs are conjugated for a number of things, unlike in English. Here are some examples of subject verb agreement in Magahi from ''The Indo Aryan Languages''.
 +
* {{transferTest|mag|eng|Ham sutli.|I slept.}}
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*: {{transferMorphTest|mag|eng|prpers{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|sg}} sut{{tag|v}}{{tag|past}}{{tag|s_p1}}|prpers{{tag|prn}}{{tag|subj}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|mf}}{{tag|sg}} sleep{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|past}}}}
 +
* {{transferTest|mag|eng|Tu sutla.|You slept.}}
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*: {{transferMorphTest|mag|eng|prpers{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p2}}{{tag|sg}} sut{{tag|v}}{{tag|past}}{{tag|s_p2}}|prpers{{tag|prn}}{{tag|subj}}{{tag|p2}}{{tag|m}} sleep{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|past}}}}
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* {{transferTest|mag|eng|U sutlo.|He slept.}} Unfortunately, it looks like apertium-eng doesn't support singular they, so we have to pick a gender, and since our source from the early 1900's defaults to masculine, we'll do that too, so it can be accurate to those sentences.
 +
*: {{transferMorphTest|mag|eng|prpers{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|sg}} sut{{tag|v}}{{tag|past}}{{tag|s_p3}}|prpers{{tag|prn}}{{tag|subj}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|m}} sleep{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|past}}}}
  
^ई/<prn><pers><prx><p3><sg>$ ^चारो/cāro<adj>$ ^बात/bāt<n>/bāt<n><obl>$ ^के/ke<post>$ ^जे/*जे$ ^केउ/*केउ$ ^साधन/*साधन$ ^कर/*कर$ ^है/<aux><v><pres><o_p3><low>$^,/,<cm>$ ^ओकरा/<prn><dem><obl><prx>$ ^पर/par<post>$ ^भगवान/*भगवान$ ^सदा/*सदा$ ^खुस/khus<adj>$ ^रह/raHa<v><pres>$ ^हथ/*हथ$^,/,<cm>$
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=== Tenses ===
 +
Magahi verbs are also conjugated according to a few tenses. Here are some basic examples.
 +
* {{transferTest|mag|eng|Sādhū dekho.|The saint sees.}}
 +
*: {{transferMorphTest|mag|eng|saint{{tag|n}} dekh{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|s_p3}}|the{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}}{{tag|sp}} saint{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}} see{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|sg}}}}
 +
* {{transferTest|mag|eng|Sādhū dekhlo.|The saint saw.}}
 +
*: {{transferMorphTest|mag|eng|saint{{tag|n}} dekh{{tag|v}}{{tag|past}}{{tag|s_p3}}|the{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}}{{tag|sp}} saint{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}} see{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|past}}}}
 +
* {{transferTest|mag|eng|Sādhū dekhbo.|The saint will see.}}
 +
*: {{transferMorphTest|mag|eng|saint{{tag|n}} dekh{{tag|v}}{{tag|fut}}{{tag|s_p3}}|the{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}}{{tag|sp}} saint{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}} will{{tag|vbmod}}{{tag|pres}} see{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|inf}}}}
  
^आउ/āu<cnj>$ ^अंत/*अंत$ ^में/meṃ<post>$ ^ओकरा/<prn><dem><obl><prx>$ ^बैकुंठ/*बैकुंठ$ ^मिल/*मिल$ ^है/<aux><v><pres><o_p3><low>$^./.<sent>$
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=== Other stuff ===
 +
Here's some miscellaneous verb differences, highlighting object agreement, past tense, SOV order, and how Magahi uses the auxiliary.
 +
* {{transferTest|mag|eng|Sādhū unka phar delthin.|The saint gave him fruit.}}
 +
*: {{transferMorphTest|mag|eng|sādhū{{tag|n}} u{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|gen}}{{tag|hi}} phar{{tag|n}}{{tag|obl}} de{{tag|v}}{{tag|past}}{{tag|o_p3}}{{tag|hi}} |The{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}}{{tag|sp}} saint{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}} give{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|past}} prpers{{tag|prn}}{{tag|obj}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|m}}{{tag|sg}} fruit{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}}}
  
^एकरा/<prn><dem><obl>$ ^सेवाए/*सेवाए$ ^एक/*एक$ ^बात/bāt<n>/bāt<n><obl>$ ^राजा/rājā<n>/rājā<n><obl>/rājā<n><obl>$ ^लोग/*लोग$ ^के/ke<post>$ ^आउ/āu<cnj>$ ^भी/bhī<adv>$ ^है/<aux><v><pres><o_p3><low>$^./.<sent>$
+
* {{transferTest|mag|eng|Rājā baHut khus bhelan.|The king became very happy.}}
 +
*: {{transferMorphTest|mag|eng|rājā{{tag|n}} baHut{{tag|adv}} khus{{tag|adj}} bhe{{tag|v}}{{tag|past}}{{tag|s_p3}}|The{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}}{{tag|sp}} king{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}} become{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|past}} very{{tag|adv}} glad{{tag|adj}}{{tag|sint}}}}
  
^ऊ/*ऊ$ ^ई/<prn><pers><prx><p3><sg>$ ^है/<aux><v><pres><o_p3><low>$ ^के/ke<post>$^,/,<cm>$ ^नेआव/*नेआव$ ^में/meṃ<post>$ ^पक/*पक$्^का/*का$ ^रहे/*रहे$ ^के/ke<post>$ ^चाही/*चाही$^./.<sent>$
+
* {{transferTest|mag|eng|Tu dekhait Ha.|You are looking.}}
 +
*: {{transferMorphTest|mag|eng|tu{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p2}}{{tag|sg}} dekh{{tag|v}}{{tag|impf}} ha{{tag|aux}}{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}}|you{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p2}}{{tag|mf}}{{tag|sg}} be{{tag|vbser}}{{tag|pres}} look{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|ger}}}}
  
^कभी/*कभी$ ^केकरो/*केकरो$ ^खातिर/*खातिर$ ^से/se<post>$ ^केकरो/*केकरो$ ^बिगारे/*बिगारे$ ^या/*या$ ^बनावे/*बनावे$ ^के/ke<post>$ ^ना/*ना$ ^चाही/*चाही$^./.<sent>$^"/"<quot>$
+
== Pronouns ==
 +
Magahi pronouns are quite a bit more complicated than English pronouns, and, unfortunately, most of our source is in third person, so few pronouns other than "i" and "u" are used. However, here are some examples of pronouns other than "i" and "u" in some fairly complex sentences.
 +
* {{transferTest|mag|eng|Tab sādhūwā kaHlan ke, jā tu.|Then the saint said that you go.}}
 +
*: {{transferMorphTest|mag|eng|prn{{tag|cor}}{{tag|time}}{{tag|prn}} sādhū{{tag|n}}{{tag|def}} kaH{{tag|v}}{{tag|past}}{{tag|s_p3}} ke{{tag|post}} jā{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}} prpers{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p2}}{{tag|sg}}|then{{tag|adv}} the{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}}{{tag|sp}} saint{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}} say{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|past}} that{{tag|cnjsub}} prpers{{tag|prn}}{{tag|subj}}{{tag|p2}}{{tag|mf}}{{tag|sp}} go{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|pres}}}}
 +
* {{transferTest|mag|eng|Hamrā kuch sikhawān ke bāt kaHa.|Say to me some things of advice.}} KaHa rather than kaHiṃ like in the source because kaHa is the modern ending according to our other source.
 +
*: {{transferMorphTest|mag|eng|prpers{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|obl}} kuch{{tag|det}} sikha{{tag|n}}{{tag|obl}}{{tag|def}}{{tag|pl}} ke{{tag|post}} bāt{{tag|n}}{{tag|obl}} kaH{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|s_p2}}|say{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|imp}} to{{tag|pr}} prpers{{tag|prn}}{{tag|obj}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|mf}}{{tag|sg}} some{{tag|det}}{{tag|qnt}}{{tag|sp}} thing{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}} of{{tag|pr}} advice{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}}}
  
^ई/<prn><pers><prx><p3><sg>$ ^सब/*सब$ ^बात/bāt<n>/bāt<n><obl>$ ^राजा/rājā<n>/rājā<n><obl>/rājā<n><obl>$ ^सुन/sun<v><pres>/sun<v><pres><s_p2>$ ^के/ke<post>$ ^साधू/sādhū<n>/sādhū<n><obl>/sādhū<n><obl>$ ^जी/jī<post>$ ^के/ke<post>$ ^पंओ/*पंओ$ ^पर/par<post>$ ^गिर/*गिर$ ^पार/*पार$्^लन/*लन$^,/,<cm>$ ^आउ/āu<cnj>$ ^कहलन/kaH<v><past><o_p3><low>$ ^के/ke<post>$^,/,<cm>$ ^"/"<quot>$^हमरा/<prn><pers><p1><sg><obl>$ ^तूं/<prn><pers><p2><sg>$ ^अपन/apan<adj>$ ^चेला/*चेला$ ^बना/*बना$ ^ला/lā<post>$^./.<sent>$^"/"<quot>$
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[[Category:Magahi]][[Category:English]][[Category:Sp21_ContrastiveGrammars]]
 
 
^तब/<prn><cor><time>/tab<adv>$ ^साधू/sādhū<n>/sādhū<n><obl>/sādhū<n><obl>$ ^जी/jī<post>$ ^कहलन/kaH<v><past><o_p3><low>$ ^के/ke<post>$^,/,<cm>$ ^"/"<quot>$^जा/jā<v><pres>$ ^तूं/<prn><pers><p2><sg>$^,/,<cm>$ ^नेआव/*नेआव$ ^से/se<post>$ ^राज/*राज$ ^कर/*कर$ ^गा/*गा$^./.<sent>$
 
 
 
^नेआव/*नेआव$ ^से/se<post>$ ^राज/*राज$ ^करना/*करना$^,/,<cm>$ ^जङगल/jaṅgal<n>/jaṅgal<n><obl>$ ^में/meṃ<post>$ ^बैठ/baiṭh<v><pres>/baiṭh<v><pres><s_p2>$ ^के/ke<post>$ ^तपसेआ/tapaseā<n>/tapaseā<n><obl>/tapaseā<n><obl>$ ^करना/*करना$ ^से/se<post>$ ^भी/bhī<adv>$ ^बेस/*बेस$ ^है/<aux><v><pres><o_p3><low>$^./.<sent>$^"/"<quot>$
 
 
 
^एतना/<prn><dem><quant>/etnā<n>/etnā<n><obl>/etnā<n><obl>$ ^में/meṃ<post>$ ^राजा/rājā<n>/rājā<n><obl>/rājā<n><obl>$ ^के/ke<post>$ ^सिपाही/sipāHī<n>/sipāHī<n><obl>/sipāHī<n><obl>$ ^पतुकि/*पतुकि$ ^राजा/rājā<n>/rājā<n><obl>/rājā<n><obl>$ ^के/ke<post>$ ^खोजते/khojate<v><pres>$ ^खोजते/khojate<v><pres>$ ^हुआं/*हुआं$ ^पहुंच/*पहुंच$ ^गेलैन/ge<v><past><o_p3><hi>$^./.<sent>$
 
 
 
^तब/<prn><cor><time>/tab<adv>$ ^साधू/sādhū<n>/sādhū<n><obl>/sādhū<n><obl>$ ^जी/jī<post>$ ^के/ke<post>$ ^परनाम/*परनाम$ ^अर/*अर$ ^के/ke<post>$ ^राजा/rājā<n>/rājā<n><obl>/rājā<n><obl>$ ^अपन/apan<adj>$ ^गंव/*गंव$ ^में/meṃ<post>$ ^घुर/ghur<v><pres>/ghur<v><pres><s_p2>$ ^ऐलन/*ऐलन$^../..<sent>$
 
 
 
^In/in<adv>/in<pr>$ ^a/a<det><ind><sg>$ ^certain/certain<adj>$ ^forest/forest<adj>/forest<n><sg>/forest<vblex><inf>/forest<vblex><pres>/forest<vblex><imp>$ ^there/there<adv>$ ^dwelt/dwell<vblex><past>/dwell<vblex><pp>$ ^a/a<det><ind><sg>$ ^saint/saint<adj>/saint<n><sg>$^../..<sent>$
 
 
 
^One day/one day<adv>$ ^a/a<det><ind><sg>$ ^king/king<n><sg>$ ^lost/lost<adj>/lose<vblex><past>/lose<vblex><pp>$ ^his/his<adj><pos><pred>/his<det><pos><sp>/prpers<prn><pos><p3><m><sg>/prpers<det><pos><p3><m><sg>$ ^way/way<n><sg>$ ^and/and<cnjcoo>$ ^approached/approach<vblex><pp>/approach<vblex><past>$ ^him/prpers<prn><obj><p3><m><sg>$^./.<sent>$ ^When/when<adv>/when<cnjsub>/when<cnjadv>/when<adv><itg>$ ^the/the<det><def><sp>$ ^king/king<n><sg>$ ^saw/saw<n><sg>/saw<vblex><inf>/saw<vblex><pres>/saw<vblex><imp>/see<vblex><past>$ ^him/prpers<prn><obj><p3><m><sg>$ ^he/prpers<prn><subj><p3><m><sg>$ ^paid/pay<vblex><past>/pay<vblex><pp>$ ^him/prpers<prn><obj><p3><m><sg>$ ^reverence/reverence<n><sg>$ ^and/and<cnjcoo>$ ^sat down/sit<vblex><past># down/sit<vblex><pp># down$^../..<sent>$
 
 
 
^The/the<det><def><sp>$ ^saint/saint<adj>/saint<n><sg>$ ^seeing/see<vblex><pprs>/see<vblex><subs>/see<vblex><ger>$ ^that/that<cnjsub>/that<det><dem><sg>/that<prn><dem><mf><sg>/that<prn><rel><an><mf><sp>$ ^he/prpers<prn><subj><p3><m><sg>$ ^was/be<vbser><past><p1><sg>/be<vbser><past><p3><sg>$ ^thirsty/thirsty<adj><sint>$ ^gave/give<vblex><past>$ ^him/prpers<prn><obj><p3><m><sg>$ ^some/some<adj>/some<adv>/some<det><qnt><sp>/some<prn><ind><mf><pl>$ ^wild/wild<adj><sint>$ ^fruit/fruit<n><sg>$ ^to/to<pr>$ ^eat/eat<vblex><inf>/eat<vblex><pres>/eat<vblex><imp>$ ^and/and<cnjcoo>$ ^some/some<adj>/some<adv>/some<det><qnt><sp>/some<prn><ind><mf><pl>$ ^water/water<n><sg>/water<vblex><inf>/water<vblex><pres>/water<vblex><imp>$ ^to/to<pr>$ ^drink/drink<vblex><inf>/drink<vblex><pres>/drink<vblex><imp>/drink<n><sg>$^../..<sent>$
 
 
 
^When/when<adv>/when<cnjsub>/when<cnjadv>/when<adv><itg>$ ^he/prpers<prn><subj><p3><m><sg>$ ^ate/eat<vblex><past>$ ^the/the<det><def><sp>$ ^fruit/fruit<n><sg>$ ^and/and<cnjcoo>$ ^drank/drink<vblex><past>$ ^the/the<det><def><sp>$ ^water/water<n><sg>/water<vblex><inf>/water<vblex><pres>/water<vblex><imp>$^,/,<cm>$ ^the/the<det><def><sp>$ ^king/king<n><sg>$ ^became/become<vblex><past>$ ^glad/glad<adj><sint>$ ^in/in<adv>/in<pr>$ ^heart/heart<n><sg>$^,/,<cm>$ ^and/and<cnjcoo>$^,/,<cm>$ ^after/after<adv>/after<cnjadv>/after<pr>$ ^sitting/sit<vblex><pprs>/sit<vblex><subs>/sit<vblex><ger>$ ^for/for<cnjadv>/for<pr>$ ^a/a<det><ind><sg>$ ^short/short<adv>/short<adj><sint>$ ^time/time<n><sg>/time<vblex><inf>/time<vblex><pres>/time<vblex><imp>$ ^in/in<adv>/in<pr>$ ^the/the<det><def><sp>$ ^cool/cool<adj><sint>/cool<vblex><inf>/cool<vblex><pres>/cool<vblex><imp>$ ^air/air<n><sg>/air<vblex><inf>/air<vblex><pres>/air<vblex><imp>$^,/,<cm>$ ^his/his<adj><pos><pred>/his<det><pos><sp>/prpers<prn><pos><p3><m><sg>/prpers<det><pos><p3><m><sg>$ ^weariness/weariness<n><sg>$ ^left/left<adj>/left<adv>/left<n><sg>/leave<vblex><past>/leave<vblex><pp>$ ^him/prpers<prn><obj><p3><m><sg>$^../..<sent>$
 
 
 
^Then/then<adv>/then<cnjadv>$ ^reverently/*reverently$ ^clasping/*clasping$ ^his/his<adj><pos><pred>/his<det><pos><sp>/prpers<prn><pos><p3><m><sg>/prpers<det><pos><p3><m><sg>$ ^hands/hand<n><pl>/hand<vblex><pres><p3><sg>$ ^before/before<adv>/before<cnjadv>/before<pr>$ ^the/the<det><def><sp>$ ^holy/holy<n><sg>/holy<adj><sint>$ ^man/man<n><sg>$ ^he/prpers<prn><subj><p3><m><sg>$ ^said/say<vblex><past>/say<vblex><pp>$ ^to/to<pr>$ ^him/prpers<prn><obj><p3><m><sg>$^,/,<cm>$ "^Reverend/reverend<adj>/reverend<n><sg>$ ^Sir/sir<n><sg>$^,/,<cm>$ ^deign/*deign$ ^to/to<pr>$ ^tell/tell<vblex><inf>/tell<vblex><pres>/tell<vblex><imp>$ ^me/prpers<prn><obj><p1><mf><sg>$ ^some/some<adj>/some<adv>/some<det><qnt><sp>/some<prn><ind><mf><pl>$ ^words/word<n><pl>$ ^of/of<pr>$ ^advice/advice<n><sg>$^,/,<cm>$ ^by/by<adv>/by<pr>$ ^which/which<det><itg><sp>/which<prn><itg><mf><sp>/which<prn><rel><an><mf><sp>$ ^my/my<det><pos><sp>/prpers<det><pos><p1><mf><sg>$ ^welfare/welfare<n><sg>$ ^may/may<vbmod><inf>/may<vbmod><pres>$ ^be/be<vbser><inf>/be<vbser><imp>$ ^assured/assured<adj>/assure<vblex><past>/assure<vblex><pp>$^./.<sent>$"^./.<sent>$
 
 
 
^The/the<det><def><sp>$ ^saint/saint<adj>/saint<n><sg>$ ^replied/reply<vblex><pp>/reply<vblex><past>$^,/,<cm>$ "^Keep/keep<n><sg>/keep<vblex><inf>/keep<vblex><pres>/keep<vblex><imp>$ ^in/in<adv>/in<pr>$ ^thy/thy<det><pos><sp>$ ^remembrance/remembrance<n><sg>$ ^these/this<det><dem><pl>/this<prn><dem><mf><pl>$ ^four/four<num><pl>$ ^things/thing<n><pl>$^:./:.<sent>$
 
 
 
^First/first<adv>/first<adj><ord>$^,/,<cm>$ ^to/to<pr>$ ^every/every<adv>/every<det><ind><sg>$ ^keep/keep<n><sg>/keep<vblex><inf>/keep<vblex><pres>/keep<vblex><imp>$ ^repeating/repeat<vblex><pprs>/repeat<vblex><subs>/repeat<vblex><ger>$ ^the/the<det><def><sp>$ ^name/name<n><sg>/name<vblex><inf>/name<vblex><pres>/name<vblex><imp>$ ^of/of<pr>$ ^God/god<n><sg>/God<np><al><sg>$^;./;.<sent>$
 
 
 
^Second/second<adv>/second<n><sg>/second<adj><ord>/second<vblex><inf>/second<vblex><pres>/second<vblex><imp>$^,/,<cm>$ ^to/to<pr>$ ^show/show<n><sg>/show<vblex><inf>/show<vblex><pres>/show<vblex><imp>$ ^compassion/compassion<n><sg>$ ^to/to<pr>$ ^all/all<adv>/all<predet><sp>/all<det><qnt><pl>/all<prn><qnt><mf><sp>$ ^living/living<adj>/living<n><sg>/live<vblex><pprs>/live<vblex><subs>/live<vblex><ger>$ ^creatures/creature<n><pl>$^;./;.<sent>$
 
 
 
^Third/third<n><sg>/third<adj><ord>$^,/,<cm>$ ^to/to<pr>$ ^be/be<vbser><inf>/be<vbser><imp>$ ^tolerant/tolerant<adj>$ ^to/to<pr>$ ^the/the<det><def><sp>$ ^errors/error<n><pl>$ ^of/of<pr>$ ^others/others<prn><ind><mf><pl>$^;./;.<sent>$
 
 
 
^and/and<cnjcoo>$ ^Fourthly/fourthly<adv>$^,/,<cm>$ ^never/never<adv>$ ^to/to<pr>$ ^be/be<vbser><inf>/be<vbser><imp>$ ^vain/vain<adj>$^-/-<guio>$^glorious/glorious<adj>$ ^for/for<cnjadv>/for<pr>$ ^any/any<adv>/any<det><ind><sp>/any<prn><qnt><mf><sp>$ ^cause/cause<n><sg>/cause<vblex><inf>/cause<vblex><pres>/cause<vblex><imp>$^../..<sent>$
 
 
 
^He/He<np><cog><sg>/prpers<prn><subj><p3><m><sg>$ ^who/who<prn><itg><mf><sp>/who<prn><rel><an><mf><sp>$ ^practiseth/*practiseth$ ^these/this<det><dem><pl>/this<prn><dem><mf><pl>$ ^four/four<num><pl>$ ^things/thing<n><pl>$^,/,<cm>$ ^with/with<pr>$ ^him/prpers<prn><obj><p3><m><sg>$ ^God/god<n><sg>/God<np><al><sg>$ ^is/be<vbser><pres><p3><sg>$ ^well/well<adv>/well<n><sg>$^-/-<guio>$^pleased/pleased<adj>/please<vblex><past>/please<vblex><pp>$^,/,<cm>$^./.<sent>$
 
 
 
^and/and<cnjcoo>$^,/,<cm>$ ^in the end/in the end<adv>$^,/,<cm>$ ^he/prpers<prn><subj><p3><m><sg>$ ^findeth/*findeth$ ^eternal/eternal<adj>$ ^bliss/bliss<n><sg>$^../..<sent>$
 
 
 
^Besides/besides<adv>$ ^these/this<det><dem><pl>/this<prn><dem><mf><pl>$^,/,<cm>$ ^there/there<adv>$ ^is/be<vbser><pres><p3><sg>$ ^one/one<num><sg>/one<prn><dem><mf><sg>$ ^thing/thing<n><sg>$ ^more/more<adv>/more<preadv>/more<n><sg>/more<det><qnt><sp>$ ^to/to<pr>$ ^be/be<vbser><inf>/be<vbser><imp>$ ^observed/observe<vblex><past>/observe<vblex><pp>$ ^by/by<adv>/by<pr>$ ^kings/king<n><pl>$^,/,<cm>$^./.<sent>$
 
 
 
^and/and<cnjcoo>$ ^it/prpers<prn><subj><p3><nt><sg>/prpers<prn><obj><p3><nt><sg>$ ^is/be<vbser><pres><p3><sg>$ ^this/this<det><dem><sg>/this<prn><dem><mf><sg>/this<prn><rel><an><mf><sp>$^:/:<sent>$ ^Ever/ever<adv>/Ever<np><ant><m><sg>$ ^remain/remain<vblex><inf>/remain<vblex><pres>/remain<vblex><imp>$ ^firm/firm<n><sg>/firm<adj><sint>$ ^in/in<adv>/in<pr>$ ^justice/justice<n><sg>$^,/,<cm>$^./.<sent>$
 
 
 
^and/and<cnjcoo>$ ^never/never<adv>$ ^promote/promote<vblex><inf>/promote<vblex><pres>/promote<vblex><imp>$ ^or/or<cnjcoo>$ ^degrade/degrade<vblex><inf>/degrade<vblex><pres>/degrade<vblex><imp>$ ^anyone/anyone<prn><ind><mf><sg>$ ^out of/out of<pr>$ ^partiality/partiality<n><sg>$^./.<sent>$"^./.<sent>$
 
 
 
^When/when<adv>/when<cnjsub>/when<cnjadv>/when<adv><itg>$ ^the/the<det><def><sp>$ ^king/king<n><sg>$ ^had/have<vbhaver><past>/have<vblex><past>$ ^made/made<adj>/make<vblex><past>/make<vblex><pp>$ ^an/a<det><ind><sg>$ ^end/end<n><sg>/end<vblex><inf>/end<vblex><pres>/end<vblex><imp>$ ^of/of<pr>$ ^hearing/hearing<n><sg>/hear<vblex><pprs>/hear<vblex><subs>/hear<vblex><ger>$ ^these/this<det><dem><pl>/this<prn><dem><mf><pl>$ ^words/word<n><pl>$^,/,<cm>$ ^he/prpers<prn><subj><p3><m><sg>$ ^fell/fell<vblex><inf>/fell<vblex><pres>/fell<vblex><imp>/fall<vblex><past>$ ^at/at<pr>$ ^the/the<det><def><sp>$ ^feet/foot<n><pl>$ ^of/of<pr>$ ^the/the<det><def><sp>$ ^holy/holy<n><sg>/holy<adj><sint>$ ^man/man<n><sg>$ ^crying/crying<n><sg>/cry<vblex><pprs>/cry<vblex><subs>/cry<vblex><ger>$^,/,<cm>$ "^Take/take<vblex><inf>/take<vblex><pres>/take<vblex><imp>$ ^thou/prpers<prn><subj><p2><mf><sg>$ ^me/prpers<prn><obj><p1><mf><sg>$ ^as/as<adv>/as<preadv>/as<cnjsub>/as<cnjadv>/as<pr>$ ^thy/thy<det><pos><sp>$ ^disciple/disciple<n><sg>$^./.<sent>$"^./.<sent>$
 
 
 
^But/but<cnjcoo>/but<pr>$ ^the/the<det><def><sp>$ ^saint/saint<adj>/saint<n><sg>$ ^in/in<adv>/in<pr>$ ^answer/answer<n><sg>/answer<vblex><inf>/answer<vblex><pres>/answer<vblex><imp>$ ^said/say<vblex><past>/say<vblex><pp>$^,/,<cm>$ "^Go/go<vblex><inf>/go<vblex><pres>/go<vblex><imp>$ ^thou/prpers<prn><subj><p2><mf><sg>$^,/,<cm>$ ^and/and<cnjcoo>$ ^rule/rule<n><sg>/rule<vblex><inf>/rule<vblex><pres>/rule<vblex><imp>$ ^thy/thy<det><pos><sp>$ ^kingdom/kingdom<n><sg>$ ^justly/justly<adv>$^../..<sent>$
 
 
 
^To/to<pr>$ ^rule/rule<n><sg>/rule<vblex><inf>/rule<vblex><pres>/rule<vblex><imp>$ ^with/with<pr>$ ^justice/justice<n><sg>$ ^is/be<vbser><pres><p3><sg>$ ^better/better<adv>/good<adj><sint><comp>$ ^than/than<cnjsub>$ ^sitting/sit<vblex><pprs>/sit<vblex><subs>/sit<vblex><ger>$ ^in/in<adv>/in<pr>$ ^the/the<det><def><sp>$ ^forest/forest<adj>/forest<n><sg>/forest<vblex><inf>/forest<vblex><pres>/forest<vblex><imp>$ ^and/and<cnjcoo>$ ^practising/practise<vblex><pprs>/practise<vblex><subs>/practise<vblex><ger>$ ^austerities/austerity<n><pl>$^./.<sent>$"^./.<sent>$
 
 
 
^In the meantime/in the meantime<adv>$^,/,<cm>$ ^the/the<det><def><sp>$ ^soldiers/soldier<n><pl>$ ^and/and<cnjcoo>$ ^followers/follower<n><pl>$ ^of/of<pr>$ ^the/the<det><def><sp>$ ^king/king<n><sg>$^,/,<cm>$ ^who/who<prn><itg><mf><sp>/who<prn><rel><an><mf><sp>$ ^had/have<vbhaver><past>/have<vblex><past>$ ^been/be<vbser><pp>$ ^seeking/seek<vblex><pprs>/seek<vblex><subs>/seek<vblex><ger>$ ^him/prpers<prn><obj><p3><m><sg>$^,/,<cm>$ ^arrived/arrive<vblex><past>/arrive<vblex><pp>$^,/,<cm>$^./.<sent>$
 
 
 
^and/and<cnjcoo>$ ^the/the<det><def><sp>$ ^king/king<n><sg>$ ^bowed/bow<vblex><pp>/bow<vblex><past>$ ^down/down<adv>/down<n><sg>$ ^before/before<adv>/before<cnjadv>/before<pr>$ ^the/the<det><def><sp>$ ^saint/saint<adj>/saint<n><sg>$ ^and/and<cnjcoo>$ ^returned/return<vblex><pp>/return<vblex><past>$ ^to/to<pr>$ ^his/his<adj><pos><pred>/his<det><pos><sp>/prpers<prn><pos><p3><m><sg>/prpers<det><pos><p3><m><sg>$ ^own/own<adj>/own<vblex><inf>/own<vblex><pres>/own<vblex><imp>$ ^village/village<n><sg>$^../..<sent>$
 

Latest revision as of 21:16, 3 May 2021

mag-eng tests

  • (fra) Je le mangerai → (spa) Yo lo comeré ("I'll eat it.")
    (fra) je<prn><pers><p1><sg><nom> le<prn><pers><p3><m><acc> manger<v><tv><fut><p1><sg> → (spa) yo<prn><pers><p1><sg><nom> lo<prn><pers><p3><m><acc> comer<v><tv><fut><p1><sg>

Noun Tags

Locative

  • (mag) ghore → (eng) horse
    (mag) ghorā<n><loc> → (eng) horse<n>
  • (mag) baile → (eng) bull
    (mag) bail<n><loc> → (eng) bull<n>
  • (mag) core → (eng) thief
    (mag) cor<n><loc> → (eng) thief<n>

Instrumental

  • (mag) phaleṃ → (eng) fruit
    (mag) phal<n><inst> → (eng) fruit<n>
  • (mag) rāje → (eng) king
    (mag) rājā<n><inst> → (eng) king<n>
  • (mag) mālieṃ → (eng) gardener
    (mag) mālī<n><inst> → (eng) gardener<n>

Postpositions

Magahi doesn't have prepositions; instead it has postpositions.

  • (mag) jaṅgal meṃ → (eng) in the forest.
    (mag) jaṅgal<n> meṃ<post> → (eng) in<pr> the<det><def><sp> forest<n><sg>
  • (mag) gādhū ke dekh ke. → (eng) seeing the saint.
    (mag) gādhū<n><obl> ke<post> dekh<v><pres> ke<post> → (eng) see<vblex><pprs> the<det><def><sp> saint<n><sg>
  • (mag) pāoṃ lāg ke. → (eng) touching the feet.
    (mag) pāoṃ<n><obl> lāg<v><pres> ke<post> → (eng) touch<vblex><ger> the<det><def><sp> foot<n><pl>}

Notice the first adds a postposition after "saint" where the english one doesn't.

Sometimes Magahi sentences make do without a preposition where English needs one.</br>

  • (mag) neāw se rāj karnā jaṅgal meṃ baiṭh ke bhī bes hai. → (eng) To rule with justice is better than sitting in a forest.
    (mag) neāw<n><obl> se<post> rāj<v><pres> karnā<v> jaṅgal<n><obl> meṃ<post> baiṭh<v><pres> ke<post> bhī<adv> bes<adj> hai<aux><v><pres><o_p3><low> → (eng) to<pr> rule<vblex><inf> with<pr> justice<n><sg> be<vbser><pres><p3><sg> good<adj><sint><comp> than<cnjsub> sit<vblex><ger> in<pr> a<det><ind><sg> forest<n><sg>

Verbs

Conjugation

Magahi verbs are conjugated for a number of things, unlike in English. Here are some examples of subject verb agreement in Magahi from The Indo Aryan Languages.

  • (mag) Ham sutli. → (eng) I slept.
    (mag) prpers<prn><pers><p1><sg> sut<v><past><s_p1> → (eng) prpers<prn><subj><p1><mf><sg> sleep<vblex><past>
  • (mag) Tu sutla. → (eng) You slept.
    (mag) prpers<prn><pers><p2><sg> sut<v><past><s_p2> → (eng) prpers<prn><subj><p2><m> sleep<vblex><past>
  • (mag) U sutlo. → (eng) He slept. Unfortunately, it looks like apertium-eng doesn't support singular they, so we have to pick a gender, and since our source from the early 1900's defaults to masculine, we'll do that too, so it can be accurate to those sentences.
    (mag) prpers<prn><pers><p3><sg> sut<v><past><s_p3> → (eng) prpers<prn><subj><p3><m> sleep<vblex><past>

Tenses

Magahi verbs are also conjugated according to a few tenses. Here are some basic examples.

  • (mag) Sādhū dekho. → (eng) The saint sees.
    (mag) saint<n> dekh<v><pres><s_p3> → (eng) the<det><def><sp> saint<n><sg> see<vblex><pres><p3><sg>
  • (mag) Sādhū dekhlo. → (eng) The saint saw.
    (mag) saint<n> dekh<v><past><s_p3> → (eng) the<det><def><sp> saint<n><sg> see<vblex><past>
  • (mag) Sādhū dekhbo. → (eng) The saint will see.
    (mag) saint<n> dekh<v><fut><s_p3> → (eng) the<det><def><sp> saint<n><sg> will<vbmod><pres> see<vblex><inf>

Other stuff

Here's some miscellaneous verb differences, highlighting object agreement, past tense, SOV order, and how Magahi uses the auxiliary.

  • (mag) Sādhū unka phar delthin. → (eng) The saint gave him fruit.
    (mag) sādhū<n> u<prn><pers><p3><sg><gen><hi> phar<n><obl> de<v><past><o_p3><hi> → (eng) The<det><def><sp> saint<n><sg> give<vblex><past> prpers<prn><obj><p3><m><sg> fruit<n><sg>
  • (mag) Rājā baHut khus bhelan. → (eng) The king became very happy.
    (mag) rājā<n> baHut<adv> khus<adj> bhe<v><past><s_p3> → (eng) The<det><def><sp> king<n><sg> become<vblex><past> very<adv> glad<adj><sint>
  • (mag) Tu dekhait Ha. → (eng) You are looking.
    (mag) tu<prn><pers><p2><sg> dekh<v><impf> ha<aux><v><pres> → (eng) you<prn><pers><p2><mf><sg> be<vbser><pres> look<vblex><ger>

Pronouns

Magahi pronouns are quite a bit more complicated than English pronouns, and, unfortunately, most of our source is in third person, so few pronouns other than "i" and "u" are used. However, here are some examples of pronouns other than "i" and "u" in some fairly complex sentences.

  • (mag) Tab sādhūwā kaHlan ke, jā tu. → (eng) Then the saint said that you go.
    (mag) prn<cor><time><prn> sādhū<n><def> kaH<v><past><s_p3> ke<post><v><pres> prpers<prn><pers><p2><sg> → (eng) then<adv> the<det><def><sp> saint<n><sg> say<vblex><past> that<cnjsub> prpers<prn><subj><p2><mf><sp> go<vblex><pres>
  • (mag) Hamrā kuch sikhawān ke bāt kaHa. → (eng) Say to me some things of advice. KaHa rather than kaHiṃ like in the source because kaHa is the modern ending according to our other source.
    (mag) prpers<prn><pers><p1><sg><obl> kuch<det> sikha<n><obl><def><pl> ke<post> bāt<n><obl> kaH<v><pres><s_p2> → (eng) say<vblex><imp> to<pr> prpers<prn><obj><p1><mf><sg> some<det><qnt><sp> thing<n><pl> of<pr> advice<n><sg>