Difference between revisions of "Magahi and English/Contrastive Grammar"

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* {{transferTest|fra|spa|Je le mangerai|Yo lo comeré}} ("I'll eat it.")
 
* {{transferTest|fra|spa|Je le mangerai|Yo lo comeré}} ("I'll eat it.")
 
*: {{transferMorphTest|fra|spa|je{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|nom}} le{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|m}}{{tag|acc}} manger{{tag|v}}{{tag|tv}}{{tag|fut}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|sg}}|yo{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|nom}} lo{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|m}}{{tag|acc}} comer{{tag|v}}{{tag|tv}}{{tag|fut}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|sg}}}}
 
*: {{transferMorphTest|fra|spa|je{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|nom}} le{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|m}}{{tag|acc}} manger{{tag|v}}{{tag|tv}}{{tag|fut}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|sg}}|yo{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|nom}} lo{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|m}}{{tag|acc}} comer{{tag|v}}{{tag|tv}}{{tag|fut}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|sg}}}}
 +
 +
== Noun Tags ==
 +
Locative
 +
* {{transferTest|mag|eng|ghore|horse}}
 +
*: {{transferMorphTest|mag|eng|ghorā{{tag|n}}{{tag|loc}}|horse{{tag|n}}}}
 +
 +
* {{transferTest|mag|eng|baile|bull}}
 +
*: {{transferMorphTest|mag|eng|bail{{tag|n}}{{tag|loc}}|bull{{tag|n}}}}
 +
 +
* {{transferTest|mag|eng|core|thief}}
 +
*: {{transferMorphTest|mag|eng|cor{{tag|n}}{{tag|loc}}|thief{{tag|n}}}}
 +
 +
Instrumental
 +
* {{transferTest|mag|eng|phaleṃ|fruit}}
 +
*: {{transferMorphTest|mag|eng|phal{{tag|n}}{{tag|inst}}|fruit{{tag|n}}}}
 +
 +
* {{transferTest|mag|eng|rāje|king}}
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*: {{transferMorphTest|mag|eng|rājā{{tag|n}}{{tag|inst}}|king{{tag|n}}}}
 +
 +
* {{transferTest|mag|eng|mālieṃ|gardener}}
 +
*: {{transferMorphTest|mag|eng|mālī{{tag|n}}{{tag|inst}}|gardener{{tag|n}}}}
  
 
== Postpositions ==
 
== Postpositions ==
Magahi doesn't have prepositions; instead it has postpositions.</br>
+
Magahi doesn't have prepositions; instead it has postpositions.<br>
 +
* {{transferTest|mag|eng|jaṅgal meṃ|in the forest.}}
 +
*: {{transferMorphTest|mag|eng|jaṅgal{{tag|n}} meṃ{{tag|post}}|in{{tag|pr}} the{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}}{{tag|sp}} forest{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}}}
 
* {{transferTest|mag|eng|gādhū ke dekh ke.|seeing the saint.}}
 
* {{transferTest|mag|eng|gādhū ke dekh ke.|seeing the saint.}}
 
*: {{transferMorphTest|mag|eng|gādhū{{tag|n}}{{tag|obl}} ke{{tag|post}} dekh{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}} ke{{tag|post}}|see{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|pprs}} the{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}}{{tag|sp}} saint{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}}}
 
*: {{transferMorphTest|mag|eng|gādhū{{tag|n}}{{tag|obl}} ke{{tag|post}} dekh{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}} ke{{tag|post}}|see{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|pprs}} the{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}}{{tag|sp}} saint{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}}}
* {{transferTest|mag|eng|pāoṃ lāg ke.|touching his feet.}}
+
* {{transferTest|mag|eng|pāoṃ lāg ke.|touching the feet.}}
*: {{transferMorphTest|mag|eng|pāoṃ{{tag|n}}{{tag|obl}} lāg{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}} ke{{tag|post}}|touch{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|pprs}} his{{tag|det}}{{tag|pos}}{{tag|sp}} prpers{{tag|det}}{{tag|pos}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|m}}{{tag|sg}} foot{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}}
+
*: {{transferMorphTest|mag|eng|pāoṃ{{tag|n}}{{tag|obl}} lāg{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}} ke{{tag|post}}|touch{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|ger}} the{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}}{{tag|sp}} foot{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}}}}
 +
Notice the first adds a postposition after "saint" where the english one doesn't. <br/>
 +
 
 +
Sometimes Magahi sentences make do without a preposition where English needs one.</br>
 +
* {{transferTest|mag|eng|neāw se rāj karnā jaṅgal meṃ baiṭh ke bhī bes hai.|To rule with justice is better than sitting in a forest.}}
 +
*: {{transferMorphTest|mag|eng|neāw{{tag|n}}{{tag|obl}} se{{tag|post}} rāj{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}} karnā{{tag|v}} jaṅgal{{tag|n}}{{tag|obl}} meṃ{{tag|post}} baiṭh{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}} ke{{tag|post}} bhī{{tag|adv}} bes{{tag|adj}} hai{{tag|aux}}{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|o_p3}}{{tag|low}}|to{{tag|pr}} rule{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|inf}} with{{tag|pr}} justice{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}} be{{tag|vbser}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|sg}} good{{tag|adj}}{{tag|sint}}{{tag|comp}} than{{tag|cnjsub}} sit{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|ger}} in{{tag|pr}} a{{tag|det}}{{tag|ind}}{{tag|sg}} forest{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}}}
  
 
== Verbs ==
 
== Verbs ==
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* {{transferTest|mag|eng|U sutlo.|He slept.}} Unfortunately, it looks like apertium-eng doesn't support singular they, so we have to pick a gender, and since our source from the early 1900's defaults to masculine, we'll do that too, so it can be accurate to those sentences.
 
* {{transferTest|mag|eng|U sutlo.|He slept.}} Unfortunately, it looks like apertium-eng doesn't support singular they, so we have to pick a gender, and since our source from the early 1900's defaults to masculine, we'll do that too, so it can be accurate to those sentences.
 
*: {{transferMorphTest|mag|eng|prpers{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|sg}} sut{{tag|v}}{{tag|past}}{{tag|s_p3}}|prpers{{tag|prn}}{{tag|subj}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|m}} sleep{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|past}}}}
 
*: {{transferMorphTest|mag|eng|prpers{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|sg}} sut{{tag|v}}{{tag|past}}{{tag|s_p3}}|prpers{{tag|prn}}{{tag|subj}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|m}} sleep{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|past}}}}
 +
 +
=== Tenses ===
 +
Magahi verbs are also conjugated according to a few tenses. Here are some basic examples.
 +
* {{transferTest|mag|eng|Sādhū dekho.|The saint sees.}}
 +
*: {{transferMorphTest|mag|eng|saint{{tag|n}} dekh{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|s_p3}}|the{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}}{{tag|sp}} saint{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}} see{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|sg}}}}
 +
* {{transferTest|mag|eng|Sādhū dekhlo.|The saint saw.}}
 +
*: {{transferMorphTest|mag|eng|saint{{tag|n}} dekh{{tag|v}}{{tag|past}}{{tag|s_p3}}|the{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}}{{tag|sp}} saint{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}} see{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|past}}}}
 +
* {{transferTest|mag|eng|Sādhū dekhbo.|The saint will see.}}
 +
*: {{transferMorphTest|mag|eng|saint{{tag|n}} dekh{{tag|v}}{{tag|fut}}{{tag|s_p3}}|the{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}}{{tag|sp}} saint{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}} will{{tag|vbmod}}{{tag|pres}} see{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|inf}}}}
  
 
=== Other stuff ===
 
=== Other stuff ===
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*: {{transferMorphTest|mag|eng|rājā{{tag|n}} baHut{{tag|adv}} khus{{tag|adj}} bhe{{tag|v}}{{tag|past}}{{tag|s_p3}}|The{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}}{{tag|sp}} king{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}} become{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|past}} very{{tag|adv}} glad{{tag|adj}}{{tag|sint}}}}
 
*: {{transferMorphTest|mag|eng|rājā{{tag|n}} baHut{{tag|adv}} khus{{tag|adj}} bhe{{tag|v}}{{tag|past}}{{tag|s_p3}}|The{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}}{{tag|sp}} king{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}} become{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|past}} very{{tag|adv}} glad{{tag|adj}}{{tag|sint}}}}
  
* {{transferTest|mag|eng|Tu dekhait ha.|You are looking.}}
+
* {{transferTest|mag|eng|Tu dekhait Ha.|You are looking.}}
 
*: {{transferMorphTest|mag|eng|tu{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p2}}{{tag|sg}} dekh{{tag|v}}{{tag|impf}} ha{{tag|aux}}{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}}|you{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p2}}{{tag|mf}}{{tag|sg}} be{{tag|vbser}}{{tag|pres}} look{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|ger}}}}
 
*: {{transferMorphTest|mag|eng|tu{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p2}}{{tag|sg}} dekh{{tag|v}}{{tag|impf}} ha{{tag|aux}}{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}}|you{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p2}}{{tag|mf}}{{tag|sg}} be{{tag|vbser}}{{tag|pres}} look{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|ger}}}}
  
 
== Pronouns ==
 
== Pronouns ==
 
Magahi pronouns are quite a bit more complicated than English pronouns, and, unfortunately, most of our source is in third person, so few pronouns other than "i" and "u" are used. However, here are some examples of pronouns other than "i" and "u" in some fairly complex sentences.
 
Magahi pronouns are quite a bit more complicated than English pronouns, and, unfortunately, most of our source is in third person, so few pronouns other than "i" and "u" are used. However, here are some examples of pronouns other than "i" and "u" in some fairly complex sentences.
* {{transferTest|mag|eng|Tab sādhūwā kahlan ke, jā tu.|Then the saint said that you go.}}
+
* {{transferTest|mag|eng|Tab sādhūwā kaHlan ke, jā tu.|Then the saint said that you go.}}
 
*: {{transferMorphTest|mag|eng|prn{{tag|cor}}{{tag|time}}{{tag|prn}} sādhū{{tag|n}}{{tag|def}} kaH{{tag|v}}{{tag|past}}{{tag|s_p3}} ke{{tag|post}} jā{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}} prpers{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p2}}{{tag|sg}}|then{{tag|adv}} the{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}}{{tag|sp}} saint{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}} say{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|past}} that{{tag|cnjsub}} prpers{{tag|prn}}{{tag|subj}}{{tag|p2}}{{tag|mf}}{{tag|sp}} go{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|pres}}}}
 
*: {{transferMorphTest|mag|eng|prn{{tag|cor}}{{tag|time}}{{tag|prn}} sādhū{{tag|n}}{{tag|def}} kaH{{tag|v}}{{tag|past}}{{tag|s_p3}} ke{{tag|post}} jā{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}} prpers{{tag|prn}}{{tag|pers}}{{tag|p2}}{{tag|sg}}|then{{tag|adv}} the{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}}{{tag|sp}} saint{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}} say{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|past}} that{{tag|cnjsub}} prpers{{tag|prn}}{{tag|subj}}{{tag|p2}}{{tag|mf}}{{tag|sp}} go{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|pres}}}}
 
* {{transferTest|mag|eng|Hamrā kuch sikhawān ke bāt kaHa.|Say to me some things of advice.}} KaHa rather than kaHiṃ like in the source because kaHa is the modern ending according to our other source.
 
* {{transferTest|mag|eng|Hamrā kuch sikhawān ke bāt kaHa.|Say to me some things of advice.}} KaHa rather than kaHiṃ like in the source because kaHa is the modern ending according to our other source.

Latest revision as of 21:16, 3 May 2021

mag-eng tests

  • (fra) Je le mangerai → (spa) Yo lo comeré ("I'll eat it.")
    (fra) je<prn><pers><p1><sg><nom> le<prn><pers><p3><m><acc> manger<v><tv><fut><p1><sg> → (spa) yo<prn><pers><p1><sg><nom> lo<prn><pers><p3><m><acc> comer<v><tv><fut><p1><sg>

Noun Tags

Locative

  • (mag) ghore → (eng) horse
    (mag) ghorā<n><loc> → (eng) horse<n>
  • (mag) baile → (eng) bull
    (mag) bail<n><loc> → (eng) bull<n>
  • (mag) core → (eng) thief
    (mag) cor<n><loc> → (eng) thief<n>

Instrumental

  • (mag) phaleṃ → (eng) fruit
    (mag) phal<n><inst> → (eng) fruit<n>
  • (mag) rāje → (eng) king
    (mag) rājā<n><inst> → (eng) king<n>
  • (mag) mālieṃ → (eng) gardener
    (mag) mālī<n><inst> → (eng) gardener<n>

Postpositions

Magahi doesn't have prepositions; instead it has postpositions.

  • (mag) jaṅgal meṃ → (eng) in the forest.
    (mag) jaṅgal<n> meṃ<post> → (eng) in<pr> the<det><def><sp> forest<n><sg>
  • (mag) gādhū ke dekh ke. → (eng) seeing the saint.
    (mag) gādhū<n><obl> ke<post> dekh<v><pres> ke<post> → (eng) see<vblex><pprs> the<det><def><sp> saint<n><sg>
  • (mag) pāoṃ lāg ke. → (eng) touching the feet.
    (mag) pāoṃ<n><obl> lāg<v><pres> ke<post> → (eng) touch<vblex><ger> the<det><def><sp> foot<n><pl>}

Notice the first adds a postposition after "saint" where the english one doesn't.

Sometimes Magahi sentences make do without a preposition where English needs one.</br>

  • (mag) neāw se rāj karnā jaṅgal meṃ baiṭh ke bhī bes hai. → (eng) To rule with justice is better than sitting in a forest.
    (mag) neāw<n><obl> se<post> rāj<v><pres> karnā<v> jaṅgal<n><obl> meṃ<post> baiṭh<v><pres> ke<post> bhī<adv> bes<adj> hai<aux><v><pres><o_p3><low> → (eng) to<pr> rule<vblex><inf> with<pr> justice<n><sg> be<vbser><pres><p3><sg> good<adj><sint><comp> than<cnjsub> sit<vblex><ger> in<pr> a<det><ind><sg> forest<n><sg>

Verbs

Conjugation

Magahi verbs are conjugated for a number of things, unlike in English. Here are some examples of subject verb agreement in Magahi from The Indo Aryan Languages.

  • (mag) Ham sutli. → (eng) I slept.
    (mag) prpers<prn><pers><p1><sg> sut<v><past><s_p1> → (eng) prpers<prn><subj><p1><mf><sg> sleep<vblex><past>
  • (mag) Tu sutla. → (eng) You slept.
    (mag) prpers<prn><pers><p2><sg> sut<v><past><s_p2> → (eng) prpers<prn><subj><p2><m> sleep<vblex><past>
  • (mag) U sutlo. → (eng) He slept. Unfortunately, it looks like apertium-eng doesn't support singular they, so we have to pick a gender, and since our source from the early 1900's defaults to masculine, we'll do that too, so it can be accurate to those sentences.
    (mag) prpers<prn><pers><p3><sg> sut<v><past><s_p3> → (eng) prpers<prn><subj><p3><m> sleep<vblex><past>

Tenses

Magahi verbs are also conjugated according to a few tenses. Here are some basic examples.

  • (mag) Sādhū dekho. → (eng) The saint sees.
    (mag) saint<n> dekh<v><pres><s_p3> → (eng) the<det><def><sp> saint<n><sg> see<vblex><pres><p3><sg>
  • (mag) Sādhū dekhlo. → (eng) The saint saw.
    (mag) saint<n> dekh<v><past><s_p3> → (eng) the<det><def><sp> saint<n><sg> see<vblex><past>
  • (mag) Sādhū dekhbo. → (eng) The saint will see.
    (mag) saint<n> dekh<v><fut><s_p3> → (eng) the<det><def><sp> saint<n><sg> will<vbmod><pres> see<vblex><inf>

Other stuff

Here's some miscellaneous verb differences, highlighting object agreement, past tense, SOV order, and how Magahi uses the auxiliary.

  • (mag) Sādhū unka phar delthin. → (eng) The saint gave him fruit.
    (mag) sādhū<n> u<prn><pers><p3><sg><gen><hi> phar<n><obl> de<v><past><o_p3><hi> → (eng) The<det><def><sp> saint<n><sg> give<vblex><past> prpers<prn><obj><p3><m><sg> fruit<n><sg>
  • (mag) Rājā baHut khus bhelan. → (eng) The king became very happy.
    (mag) rājā<n> baHut<adv> khus<adj> bhe<v><past><s_p3> → (eng) The<det><def><sp> king<n><sg> become<vblex><past> very<adv> glad<adj><sint>
  • (mag) Tu dekhait Ha. → (eng) You are looking.
    (mag) tu<prn><pers><p2><sg> dekh<v><impf> ha<aux><v><pres> → (eng) you<prn><pers><p2><mf><sg> be<vbser><pres> look<vblex><ger>

Pronouns

Magahi pronouns are quite a bit more complicated than English pronouns, and, unfortunately, most of our source is in third person, so few pronouns other than "i" and "u" are used. However, here are some examples of pronouns other than "i" and "u" in some fairly complex sentences.

  • (mag) Tab sādhūwā kaHlan ke, jā tu. → (eng) Then the saint said that you go.
    (mag) prn<cor><time><prn> sādhū<n><def> kaH<v><past><s_p3> ke<post><v><pres> prpers<prn><pers><p2><sg> → (eng) then<adv> the<det><def><sp> saint<n><sg> say<vblex><past> that<cnjsub> prpers<prn><subj><p2><mf><sp> go<vblex><pres>
  • (mag) Hamrā kuch sikhawān ke bāt kaHa. → (eng) Say to me some things of advice. KaHa rather than kaHiṃ like in the source because kaHa is the modern ending according to our other source.
    (mag) prpers<prn><pers><p1><sg><obl> kuch<det> sikha<n><obl><def><pl> ke<post> bāt<n><obl> kaH<v><pres><s_p2> → (eng) say<vblex><imp> to<pr> prpers<prn><obj><p1><mf><sg> some<det><qnt><sp> thing<n><pl> of<pr> advice<n><sg>