Difference between revisions of "Miskito/Grammar"

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[[Category: Miskito]]
 
[[Category: Miskito]]
 
[[Category: Sp21 GrammarDocumentation]]
 
[[Category: Sp21 GrammarDocumentation]]
 +
 +
=Parts of Speech=
  
 
==Nouns==
 
==Nouns==
 +
 +
===Determiners/Articles===
  
 
In Miskito, the determiner follows the noun rather than precedes it like in English. In Miskito, ba and na are used as articles interchangeably depending on the proximity of the noun. "Na" is used if the noun is closeby. For example,
 
In Miskito, the determiner follows the noun rather than precedes it like in English. In Miskito, ba and na are used as articles interchangeably depending on the proximity of the noun. "Na" is used if the noun is closeby. For example,
  
* {{morphTest|aras{{tag|n}}{{tag|det}}|aras ba}}
+
* aras{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|def}}{{tag|dst}}|aras ba : if the horse is distant, or
 +
* aras{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|def}}{{tag|prx}}|aras na : if the horse is nearby (proximate).
 +
 
 +
* {{morphTest|aras{{tag|n}}|aras}}
 +
* {{morphTest|ilili{{tag|n}}|ilili}}
 +
* {{morphTest|daktar{{tag|n}}|daktar}}
 +
* {{morphTest|sika{{tag|n}}|sika}}
 +
* {{morphTest|luhpia{{tag|n}}|luhpia}}
 +
* {{morphTest|bip{{tag|n}}|bip}}
 +
* {{morphTest|gul{{tag|n}}|gul}}
 +
* {{morphTest|aian{{tag|n}}|aian}}
 +
* {{morphTest|ba{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}}{{tag|dst}}|ba}}
 +
* {{morphTest|na{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}}{{tag|prx}}|na}}
 +
* {{morphTest|ap{{tag|det}}{{tag|ind}}|ap}}
 +
* {{morphTest|kum kum{{tag|det}}{{tag|ind}}|kum kum}}
 +
 
 +
 
 +
Additionally, kum (a), kum kum (some), and ap (some) are used as articles in the exact same way. For instance,
 +
 
 +
* aras{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|ind}}|aras ap : some horse. Also written as
 +
* aras{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|ind}}|aras kum kum
 +
 
 +
===Plural===
 +
 
 +
The plural marker is "nani". To make a noun plural, "nani" should be used after the noun. If there is an article, it will follow the noun and the plural. For example,
 +
 
 +
* {{aras{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}{{tag|def}}{{tag|dst}}|aras nani ba}} : the horses
 +
* {{ilili{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}{{tag|def}}{{tag|dst}}|ilili nani ba}} : the sharks
 +
* {{luhpia{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}{{tag|def}}{{tag|dst}}|luhpia nani ba}} : the children
 +
 
 +
* {{luhpia{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}{{tag|def}}{{tag|dst}}|luhpia nani ba}} : the children
 +
 
 +
* {{morphTest|nani{{tag|det}}{{tag|pl}}|nani}}
 +
 
 +
===Personal Pronouns===
 +
Miskito distinguishes three persons with a distinction for inclusive/exclusive in the first person plural.
 +
 
 +
* {{morphTest|yang{{tag|prn}}{{tag|p1}}|yang}}
 +
* {{morphTest|man{{tag|prn}}{{tag|p2}}|man}}
 +
* {{morphTest|witin{{tag|prn}}{{tag|p3}}|witin}}
 +
 
 +
The plurals are formed by adding the general plural determiner "nani", except for the inclusive first person plural.
 +
 
 +
* {{morphTest|yawan{{tag|prn}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|pl}}|yawan}} (inclusive)
 +
* yang{{tag|prn}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|pl}}|yang nani (exclusive)
 +
* man{{tag|prn}}{{tag|p2}}{{tag|pl}}|man nani
 +
* witin{{tag|prn}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|pl}}|witin nani
 +
 
 +
===Gender===
 +
 
 +
Gender should be placed directly after the noun. If there is an article, it will follow the noun and gender. "waitna" is used for male, "mairin" is used for female, and "wainhka" is used for male (animal). For example,
 +
 
 +
* aras{{tag|n}}{{tag|f}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|def}}{{tag|dst}}|aras mairin ba
 +
* aras{{tag|n}}{{tag|m}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|def}}{{tag|prx}}|aras wainhka na
 +
* tuktan{{tag|n}}{{tag|m}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|def}}{{tag|dst}}|tuktan waitna ba
 +
 
 +
* {{morphTest|mairin{{tag|det}}{{tag|hu}}{{tag|f}}|mairin}}
 +
* {{morphTest|wainhka{{tag|det}}{{tag|hu}}{{tag|m}}|wainhka}}
 +
* {{morphTest|waitna{{tag|det}}{{tag|nh}}{{tag|m}}|waitna}}
 +
 
 +
===Plural and Gender===
 +
In the case both plural and gender are used, the sequence is noun followed by gender followed by plural followed by determiner. For example,
 +
 
 +
* bip{{tag|n}}{{tag|f}}{{tag|pl}}{{tag|def}}{{tag|dst}}|bip mairin nani ba
 +
* aras{{tag|n}}{{tag|m}}{{tag|pl}}{{tag|def}}{{tag|prx}}|aras wainhka nani na
 +
* tuktan{{tag|n}}{{tag|m}}{{tag|pl}}{{tag|def}}{{tag|dst}}|tuktan waitna nani ba
 +
 
 +
==Adjectives==
 +
Adjectives in Miskito should be tagged {{tag|adj}}.
 +
 
 +
In Miskito, there are two types of qualified adjectives.
 +
 
 +
#Accidental qualities. When we say dus kum (a tree); wahya kum (a leaf), or sadik kum (a grapefruit), we don’t know the color or size of the item.
 +
#Explicative Qualities – these adjectives denote permanent specific qualities of the noun.
 +
 
 +
Different to Spanish and English, the explicative adjective comes after the noun. When
 +
the noun refers to a person, some qualified adjectives can optionally precede the noun. In
 +
these cases, the noun takes the constructive state.
 +
 
 +
===Comparative Adjectives===
 +
There are comparatives for inferiority, superiority, and equality.
 +
 
 +
For comparative adjectives of inferiority, we use <code>Kau wiria + wal</code>
 +
 
 +
* Nikarawa{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|def}}{{tag|dst}}{{tag|comp}}{{tag|adj}}|Nikarawa ba kau wiria tara sa Tech wal : Nicaragua is less big than the US
 +
 
 +
* Nikarawa{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|def}}{{tag|dst}}{{tag|comp}}{{tag|adj}}|Utla ba kau wiria sirpi sa dus wal : The house is less small than the tree
 +
 
 +
For comparative adjectives of superiority, we use <code>Kau + wal</code>
 +
 
 +
* Gul{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|def}}{{tag|dst}}{{tag|comp}}{{tag|adj}}|Gul ba kau mana sa aian wal : Gold is more expensive than iron
 +
 
 +
For comparative adjectives of equality, we use <code>Pali + Baku</code>
 +
 
 +
* Sika{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|def}}{{tag|dst}}{{tag|comp}}{{tag|adj}}|Sika ba nit pali sa daktar baku : The medicine is as necessary as the doctor
 +
 
 +
====Categories of Words Used Above====
 +
 
 +
* {{morphTest|kau{{tag|adv}}|kau}}
 +
* {{morphTest|wiria{{tag|adv}}|wiria}}
 +
* {{morphTest|wal{{tag|post}}|wal}}
 +
* {{morphTest|mana{{tag|adj}}|mana}}
 +
* {{morphTest|pali{{tag|adj}}|pali}}
 +
* {{morphTest|sirpi{{tag|adj}}|sirpi}}
 +
 
 +
==Possession==
 +
Possessive state nouns should be tagged {{tag|pos}}.
 +
 
 +
Forming a possessive nouns in Miskito involves a system of affixes which distinguishes between first, second, and third person. There are two general ways to form possessive nouns (alienable v. inalienable nouns), with a great number of irregular cases.
 +
 
 +
===Alienable Nouns===
 +
The first case involves alienable nouns, or nouns who's ownership can be transferred.
 +
 
 +
'''GENERALLY:'''
 +
 
 +
When a noun ends in a consonant, the affixes are -ki, -kam, and ai- -ka for 1st, 2nd, and 3rd person respectively.
 +
 
 +
«aras» (''horse'')
 +
* {{morphTest|aras{{tag|n}}{{tag|pos}}{{tag|p1}}|araski}}
 +
* {{morphTest|aras{{tag|n}}{{tag|pos}}{{tag|p2}}|araskam}}
 +
* {{morphTest|aras{{tag|n}}{{tag|pos}}{{tag|p3}}|ai araska}}
 +
 
 +
There are four special cases to consider. When a noun ends in a vowel, neither case changes the affixes.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
'''SPECIAL CASE 1:'''
 +
 
 +
When the noun ends in the vowels "I" or "U", there are two cases to consider. If the vowel is preceded by just one consonant, then the final vowel can be dropped.
 +
 
 +
«kâpi» (''café'')
 +
* {{morphTest|kâpi{{tag|n}}{{tag|pos}}{{tag|p1}}|kâpiki}} or kâpki
 +
* {{morphTest|kâpi{{tag|n}}{{tag|pos}}{{tag|p2}}|kâpikam}} or kâpkam
 +
* {{morphTest|kâpi{{tag|n}}{{tag|pos}}{{tag|p3}}|ai kâpika}} or ai kâpka
 +
 
 +
«papu» (''ant'')
 +
* {{morphTest|papu{{tag|n}}{{tag|pos}}{{tag|p1}}|papuki}} or papka
 +
* {{morphTest|papu{{tag|n}}{{tag|pos}}{{tag|p2}}|papukam}} or papkam
 +
* {{morphTest|papu{{tag|n}}{{tag|pos}}{{tag|p3}}|ai papuka}} or ai papka
 +
 
 +
 
 +
'''SPECIAL CASE 2:'''
 +
 
 +
If the final vowel is preceded by two or more consonants, then the final vowel cannot be omitted.
 +
 
 +
«krikri» (''bed'')
 +
* {{morphTest|krikri{{tag|n}}{{tag|pos}}{{tag|p1}}|krikriki}}
 +
* {{morphTest|krikri{{tag|n}}{{tag|pos}}{{tag|p2}}|krikrikam}}
 +
* {{morphTest|krikri{{tag|n}}{{tag|pos}}{{tag|p3}}|ai krikrika}}
 +
 
 +
«kwirku» (''pig'')
 +
* {{morphTest|kwirku{{tag|n}}{{tag|pos}}{{tag|p1}}|kwirkuki}}
 +
* {{morphTest|kwirku{{tag|n}}{{tag|pos}}{{tag|p2}}|kwirkukam}}
 +
* {{morphTest|kwirku{{tag|n}}{{tag|pos}}{{tag|p3}}|ai kwirkuka}}
 +
 
 +
 
 +
'''SPECIAL CASE 3:'''
 +
 
 +
When the final vowel is "A" and preceded by just one consonant, then the final must be dropped.
 +
 
 +
«kalila» (''chicken (likely hen)'')
 +
* {{morphTest|kalila{{tag|n}}{{tag|pos}}{{tag|p1}}|kalilki}}
 +
* {{morphTest|kalila{{tag|n}}{{tag|pos}}{{tag|p2}}|kalilkam}}
 +
* {{morphTest|kalila{{tag|n}}{{tag|pos}}{{tag|p3}}|ai kalilka}}
 +
 
 +
 
 +
'''SPECIAL CASE 4:'''
 +
 
 +
When the final vowel is "A" and preceded by two or more consonants, then the final vowel "A" becomes an "I".
 +
 
 +
«walpa» (''rock'')
 +
* {{morphTest|walpa{{tag|n}}{{tag|pos}}{{tag|p1}}|walpiki}}
 +
* {{morphTest|walpa{{tag|n}}{{tag|pos}}{{tag|p2}}|walpikam}}
 +
* {{morphTest|walpa{{tag|n}}{{tag|pos}}{{tag|p3}}|ai walpika}}
 +
 
 +
===Inalienable Nouns===
 +
 
 +
==Miskito Verb Tenses==
 +
Verbs in Miskito should be tagged {{tag|v}}. The person tags needed will be {{tag|p1}}, {{tag|p2}}, {{tag|p3}}.
 +
 
 +
The stem of a verb comes from removing the -aia suffix from the infinitive. Conjugation for most tenses is formed by combining a verb stem with a set of endings. The set of endings follow a general pattern for most cases, except when the verb stem ends in a vowel.
 +
 
 +
===Simple Past===
 +
 
 +
The simple past tense of verbs is formed by combining a verb stem with a set of endings: -ri, -ram, -an, -n (third person i-stem verbs).
 +
 
 +
«prukaia» (''to hit'') with the stem «pruk»- ends in a consonant:
 +
* {{morphTest|prukaia{{tag|v}}{{tag|past}}{{tag|p1}}|prukri}}
 +
* {{morphTest|prukaia{{tag|v}}{{tag|past}}{{tag|p2}}|prukram}}
 +
* {{morphTest|prukaia{{tag|v}}{{tag|past}}{{tag|p3}}|prukan}}
 +
 
 +
«buaia» (''to rise/get up'') with the stem «bu»- ends in a vowel «u»:
 +
* {{morphTest|buaia{{tag|v}}{{tag|past}}{{tag|p1}}|buri}}
 +
* {{morphTest|buaia{{tag|v}}{{tag|past}}{{tag|p2}}|buram}}
 +
* {{morphTest|buaia{{tag|v}}{{tag|past}}{{tag|p3}}|buan}}
 +
 
 +
«diaia» (''to drink'') with the stem «di»- ends in a vowel «i»:
 +
* {{morphTest|diaia{{tag|v}}{{tag|past}}{{tag|p1}}|diri}}
 +
* {{morphTest|diaia{{tag|v}}{{tag|past}}{{tag|p2}}|diram}}
 +
* {{morphTest|diaia{{tag|v}}{{tag|past}}{{tag|p3}}|din}}
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
Plural personal pronouns (e.g. 'We', 'They') utilize the same verb conjugations as the singulars. The construction just adds 'nani' to the singular pronoun: {{tag|n}} + nani + {{tag|v}}.
 +
 
 +
«pulaia» (''to play'') with the stem «pul»- ends in a consonant:
 +
* {{morphTest|pulaia{{tag|v}}{{tag|past}}{{tag|p1}}|pulri}}
 +
* {{morphTest|pulaia{{tag|v}}{{tag|past}}{{tag|p2}}|pulram}}
 +
* {{morphTest|pulaia{{tag|v}}{{tag|past}}{{tag|p3}}|pulan}}
 +
 
 +
* pulaia{{tag|v}}{{tag|past}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|pl}}|yang nani pulri
 +
* pulaia{{tag|v}}{{tag|past}}{{tag|p2}}{{tag|pl}}|man nani pulram
 +
* pulaia{{tag|v}}{{tag|past}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|pl}}|witin nani pulan
 +
 
 +
===Present 1===
 +
 
 +
Present 1 expresses an ongoing action or an imminent action at the time of speaking. For regular verbs, -una, -uma, -uya are added to the verb stem; -suna, -suma, -suya, for i-stem verbs.
 +
 
 +
«aiwanaia» (''to sing'') with the stem «aiwan»- ends in a consonant:
 +
* {{morphTest|aiwanaia{{tag|v}}{{tag|pprs}}{{tag|p1}}|aiwanuna}}
 +
* {{morphTest|aiwanaia{{tag|v}}{{tag|pprs}}{{tag|p2}}|aiwanuma}}
 +
* {{morphTest|aiwanaia{{tag|v}}{{tag|pprs}}{{tag|p3}}|aiwanuya}}
 +
 
 +
«piaia» (''to eat'') with the stem «pi»- ends in a vowel «i»:
 +
* {{morphTest|piaia{{tag|v}}{{tag|pprs}}{{tag|p1}}|pisuna}}
 +
* {{morphTest|piaia{{tag|v}}{{tag|pprs}}{{tag|p2}}|pisuma}}
 +
* {{morphTest|piaia{{tag|v}}{{tag|pprs}}{{tag|p3}}|pisuya}}
 +
 
 +
Example sentence:
 +
 
 +
Yang miskitu aisuna.
 +
"I am speaking Miskitu."
 +
 
 +
===Present 2===
 +
 
 +
Present 2 is the general present tense. For regular verbs, -isna, -isma, -isa are added to the verb stem; -sna, -sma, -sa, for vowel-stem verbs.
 +
 
 +
«alkaia» (''to grab'') with the stem «alk»- ends in a consonant:
 +
* {{morphTest|alkaia{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|p1}}|alkisna}}
 +
* {{morphTest|alkaia{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|p2}}|alkisma}}
 +
* {{morphTest|alkaia{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|p3}}|alkisa}}
 +
 
 +
«briaia» (''to have'') with the stem «bri»- ends in a vowel «i»:
 +
* {{morphTest|briaia{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|p1}}|brisna}}
 +
* {{morphTest|briaia{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|p2}}|brisma}}
 +
* {{morphTest|briaia{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|p3}}|brisa}}
 +
 
 +
Example Sentence:
 +
 
 +
Yang miskitu aisisna.
 +
"I speak Miskito."
 +
 
 +
===Imperative Forms===
 +
To express a direct order in Miskito second person verbs take the imperative form. The construction adds an -s to the verb stem.
 +
 
 +
«pulaia» (''to play'') with the stem «pul»- ends in a consonant:
 +
* {{morphTest|pulaia{{tag|v}}{{tag|imp}}|puls}}
 +
 
 +
«aiwanaia» (''to sing'') with the stem «aiwan»- ends in a consonant:
 +
* {{morphTest|aiwanaia{{tag|v}}{{tag|imp}}|aiwans}}
 +
 
 +
 
  
==Verbs in past tense==
+
=References=
 +
*[https://drive.google.com/file/d/18BblTZNXakBlPoVw_Ktib4186xlSwBRr/view?usp=sharing Learn to Speak Miskito]
 +
*[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miskito_grammar Miskito Grammar wiki]
 +
*[https://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/bitstream/handle/1808/25656/Grammar_YamniBalram.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y 2017 Miskito Grammar and Workbook]
 +
*[https://drive.google.com/file/d/1PHzBE6LTmbBLDdOCOrcG_zWgfsOgfksN/view?usp=sharing Miskito to Spanish Dictionary]

Latest revision as of 17:55, 18 May 2021


Parts of Speech

Nouns

Determiners/Articles

In Miskito, the determiner follows the noun rather than precedes it like in English. In Miskito, ba and na are used as articles interchangeably depending on the proximity of the noun. "Na" is used if the noun is closeby. For example,

  • aras<n><sg><def><dst>|aras ba : if the horse is distant, or
  • aras<n><sg><def><prx>|aras na : if the horse is nearby (proximate).
  • aras<n> ↔ aras
  • ilili<n> ↔ ilili
  • daktar<n> ↔ daktar
  • sika<n> ↔ sika
  • luhpia<n> ↔ luhpia
  • bip<n> ↔ bip
  • gul<n> ↔ gul
  • aian<n> ↔ aian
  • ba<det><def><dst> ↔ ba
  • na<det><def><prx> ↔ na
  • ap<det><ind> ↔ ap
  • kum kum<det><ind> ↔ kum kum


Additionally, kum (a), kum kum (some), and ap (some) are used as articles in the exact same way. For instance,

  • aras<n><sg><ind>|aras ap : some horse. Also written as
  • aras<n><sg><ind>|aras kum kum

Plural

The plural marker is "nani". To make a noun plural, "nani" should be used after the noun. If there is an article, it will follow the noun and the plural. For example,

  • {{aras<n><pl><def><dst>|aras nani ba}} : the horses
  • {{ilili<n><pl><def><dst>|ilili nani ba}} : the sharks
  • {{luhpia<n><pl><def><dst>|luhpia nani ba}} : the children
  • {{luhpia<n><pl><def><dst>|luhpia nani ba}} : the children
  • nani<det><pl> ↔ nani

Personal Pronouns

Miskito distinguishes three persons with a distinction for inclusive/exclusive in the first person plural.

  • yang<prn><p1> ↔ yang
  • man<prn><p2> ↔ man
  • witin<prn><p3> ↔ witin

The plurals are formed by adding the general plural determiner "nani", except for the inclusive first person plural.

  • yawan<prn><p1><pl> ↔ yawan (inclusive)
  • yang<prn><p1><pl>|yang nani (exclusive)
  • man<prn><p2><pl>|man nani
  • witin<prn><p3><pl>|witin nani

Gender

Gender should be placed directly after the noun. If there is an article, it will follow the noun and gender. "waitna" is used for male, "mairin" is used for female, and "wainhka" is used for male (animal). For example,

  • aras<n><f><sg><def><dst>|aras mairin ba
  • aras<n><m><sg><def><prx>|aras wainhka na
  • tuktan<n><m><sg><def><dst>|tuktan waitna ba
  • mairin<det><hu><f> ↔ mairin
  • wainhka<det><hu><m> ↔ wainhka
  • waitna<det><nh><m> ↔ waitna

Plural and Gender

In the case both plural and gender are used, the sequence is noun followed by gender followed by plural followed by determiner. For example,

  • bip<n><f><pl><def><dst>|bip mairin nani ba
  • aras<n><m><pl><def><prx>|aras wainhka nani na
  • tuktan<n><m><pl><def><dst>|tuktan waitna nani ba

Adjectives

Adjectives in Miskito should be tagged <adj>.

In Miskito, there are two types of qualified adjectives.

  1. Accidental qualities. When we say dus kum (a tree); wahya kum (a leaf), or sadik kum (a grapefruit), we don’t know the color or size of the item.
  2. Explicative Qualities – these adjectives denote permanent specific qualities of the noun.

Different to Spanish and English, the explicative adjective comes after the noun. When the noun refers to a person, some qualified adjectives can optionally precede the noun. In these cases, the noun takes the constructive state.

Comparative Adjectives

There are comparatives for inferiority, superiority, and equality.

For comparative adjectives of inferiority, we use Kau wiria + wal

  • Nikarawa<n><sg><def><dst><comp><adj>|Nikarawa ba kau wiria tara sa Tech wal : Nicaragua is less big than the US
  • Nikarawa<n><sg><def><dst><comp><adj>|Utla ba kau wiria sirpi sa dus wal : The house is less small than the tree

For comparative adjectives of superiority, we use Kau + wal

  • Gul<n><sg><def><dst><comp><adj>|Gul ba kau mana sa aian wal : Gold is more expensive than iron

For comparative adjectives of equality, we use Pali + Baku

  • Sika<n><sg><def><dst><comp><adj>|Sika ba nit pali sa daktar baku : The medicine is as necessary as the doctor

Categories of Words Used Above

  • kau<adv> ↔ kau
  • wiria<adv> ↔ wiria
  • wal<post> ↔ wal
  • mana<adj> ↔ mana
  • pali<adj> ↔ pali
  • sirpi<adj> ↔ sirpi

Possession

Possessive state nouns should be tagged <pos>.

Forming a possessive nouns in Miskito involves a system of affixes which distinguishes between first, second, and third person. There are two general ways to form possessive nouns (alienable v. inalienable nouns), with a great number of irregular cases.

Alienable Nouns

The first case involves alienable nouns, or nouns who's ownership can be transferred.

GENERALLY:

When a noun ends in a consonant, the affixes are -ki, -kam, and ai- -ka for 1st, 2nd, and 3rd person respectively.

«aras» (horse)

  • aras<n><pos><p1> ↔ araski
  • aras<n><pos><p2> ↔ araskam
  • aras<n><pos><p3> ↔ ai araska

There are four special cases to consider. When a noun ends in a vowel, neither case changes the affixes.


SPECIAL CASE 1:

When the noun ends in the vowels "I" or "U", there are two cases to consider. If the vowel is preceded by just one consonant, then the final vowel can be dropped.

«kâpi» (café)

  • kâpi<n><pos><p1> ↔ kâpiki or kâpki
  • kâpi<n><pos><p2> ↔ kâpikam or kâpkam
  • kâpi<n><pos><p3> ↔ ai kâpika or ai kâpka

«papu» (ant)

  • papu<n><pos><p1> ↔ papuki or papka
  • papu<n><pos><p2> ↔ papukam or papkam
  • papu<n><pos><p3> ↔ ai papuka or ai papka


SPECIAL CASE 2:

If the final vowel is preceded by two or more consonants, then the final vowel cannot be omitted.

«krikri» (bed)

  • krikri<n><pos><p1> ↔ krikriki
  • krikri<n><pos><p2> ↔ krikrikam
  • krikri<n><pos><p3> ↔ ai krikrika

«kwirku» (pig)

  • kwirku<n><pos><p1> ↔ kwirkuki
  • kwirku<n><pos><p2> ↔ kwirkukam
  • kwirku<n><pos><p3> ↔ ai kwirkuka


SPECIAL CASE 3:

When the final vowel is "A" and preceded by just one consonant, then the final must be dropped.

«kalila» (chicken (likely hen))

  • kalila<n><pos><p1> ↔ kalilki
  • kalila<n><pos><p2> ↔ kalilkam
  • kalila<n><pos><p3> ↔ ai kalilka


SPECIAL CASE 4:

When the final vowel is "A" and preceded by two or more consonants, then the final vowel "A" becomes an "I".

«walpa» (rock)

  • walpa<n><pos><p1> ↔ walpiki
  • walpa<n><pos><p2> ↔ walpikam
  • walpa<n><pos><p3> ↔ ai walpika

Inalienable Nouns

Miskito Verb Tenses

Verbs in Miskito should be tagged <v>. The person tags needed will be <p1>, <p2>, <p3>.

The stem of a verb comes from removing the -aia suffix from the infinitive. Conjugation for most tenses is formed by combining a verb stem with a set of endings. The set of endings follow a general pattern for most cases, except when the verb stem ends in a vowel.

Simple Past

The simple past tense of verbs is formed by combining a verb stem with a set of endings: -ri, -ram, -an, -n (third person i-stem verbs).

«prukaia» (to hit) with the stem «pruk»- ends in a consonant:

  • prukaia<v><past><p1> ↔ prukri
  • prukaia<v><past><p2> ↔ prukram
  • prukaia<v><past><p3> ↔ prukan

«buaia» (to rise/get up) with the stem «bu»- ends in a vowel «u»:

  • buaia<v><past><p1> ↔ buri
  • buaia<v><past><p2> ↔ buram
  • buaia<v><past><p3> ↔ buan

«diaia» (to drink) with the stem «di»- ends in a vowel «i»:

  • diaia<v><past><p1> ↔ diri
  • diaia<v><past><p2> ↔ diram
  • diaia<v><past><p3> ↔ din


Plural personal pronouns (e.g. 'We', 'They') utilize the same verb conjugations as the singulars. The construction just adds 'nani' to the singular pronoun: <n> + nani + <v>.

«pulaia» (to play) with the stem «pul»- ends in a consonant:

  • pulaia<v><past><p1> ↔ pulri
  • pulaia<v><past><p2> ↔ pulram
  • pulaia<v><past><p3> ↔ pulan
  • pulaia<v><past><p1><pl>|yang nani pulri
  • pulaia<v><past><p2><pl>|man nani pulram
  • pulaia<v><past><p3><pl>|witin nani pulan

Present 1

Present 1 expresses an ongoing action or an imminent action at the time of speaking. For regular verbs, -una, -uma, -uya are added to the verb stem; -suna, -suma, -suya, for i-stem verbs.

«aiwanaia» (to sing) with the stem «aiwan»- ends in a consonant:

  • aiwanaia<v><pprs><p1> ↔ aiwanuna
  • aiwanaia<v><pprs><p2> ↔ aiwanuma
  • aiwanaia<v><pprs><p3> ↔ aiwanuya

«piaia» (to eat) with the stem «pi»- ends in a vowel «i»:

  • piaia<v><pprs><p1> ↔ pisuna
  • piaia<v><pprs><p2> ↔ pisuma
  • piaia<v><pprs><p3> ↔ pisuya

Example sentence:

Yang miskitu aisuna. "I am speaking Miskitu."

Present 2

Present 2 is the general present tense. For regular verbs, -isna, -isma, -isa are added to the verb stem; -sna, -sma, -sa, for vowel-stem verbs.

«alkaia» (to grab) with the stem «alk»- ends in a consonant:

  • alkaia<v><pres><p1> ↔ alkisna
  • alkaia<v><pres><p2> ↔ alkisma
  • alkaia<v><pres><p3> ↔ alkisa

«briaia» (to have) with the stem «bri»- ends in a vowel «i»:

  • briaia<v><pres><p1> ↔ brisna
  • briaia<v><pres><p2> ↔ brisma
  • briaia<v><pres><p3> ↔ brisa

Example Sentence:

Yang miskitu aisisna. "I speak Miskito."

Imperative Forms

To express a direct order in Miskito second person verbs take the imperative form. The construction adds an -s to the verb stem.

«pulaia» (to play) with the stem «pul»- ends in a consonant:

  • pulaia<v><imp> ↔ puls

«aiwanaia» (to sing) with the stem «aiwan»- ends in a consonant:

  • aiwanaia<v><imp> ↔ aiwans


References