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In Miskito, the determiner follows the noun rather than precedes it like in English. In Miskito, ba and na are used as articles interchangeably depending on the proximity of the noun. "Na" is used if the noun is closeby. For example,

  • aras<n><det> ↔ aras ba if the horse is distant, or
  • aras<n><det> ↔ aras na if the horse is nearby.


The plural marker is "nani". To make a noun plural, "nani" should be used after the noun. If there is an article, it will follow the noun and the plural. For example,

  • aras<n><pl><det> ↔ aras nani ba
  • ilili<n><pl><det> ↔ ilili nani ba
  • luhpia<n><pl><det> ↔ luhpia nani ba


Gender should be placed directly after the noun. If there is an article, it will follow the noun and gender. "waitna" is used for male, "mairin" is used for female, and "wainhka" is used for male (animal). For example,

  • aras<n><f><det> ↔ aras mairin ba
  • aras<n><m><det> ↔ aras wainhka ba
  • tuktan<n><m><det> ↔ tuktan waitna ba

Plural and Gender

In the case both plural and gender are used, the sequence is noun followed by gender followed by plural followed by determiner. For example,

  • bip<n><f><pl><det> ↔ bip mairin nani ba
  • aras<n><m><pl><det> ↔ aras wainhka nani ba
  • tuktan<n><m><pl><det> ↔ tuktan waitna nani ba

Verbs in past tense