Difference between revisions of "Miskito and English/Contrastive Grammar"

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(Object Order)
(Miq-Eng tests)
 
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== Grammatical Differences ==
 
 
 
== Miq-Eng tests ==  
 
== Miq-Eng tests ==  
  
 
===Object Order===
 
===Object Order===
* {{transferTest|miq|eng|Yang wal wîna kalila piras.| I do not eat meat and chicken}}
 
*: {{transferMorphTest|miq|eng|yang{{tag|prn}}{{tag|p1}} wîna{{tag|n}} kalila{{tag|n}} piras{{tag|v}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|neg}} | I{{tag|prn}}{{tag|p1}} eat{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|pres}} meat{{tag|n}} and{{tag|cnjcoo}}}} chicken{{tag|n}}
 
 
 
Miskito is an SOV language, so the object phrase always follows the noun phrase and generally precedes the verb phrase (there are some exceptions). In contrast, English is an SVO language.
 
Miskito is an SOV language, so the object phrase always follows the noun phrase and generally precedes the verb phrase (there are some exceptions). In contrast, English is an SVO language.
 +
 +
* {{transferTest|miq|eng|Yang wal wîna kalila piras.| I don't eat meat and chicken}}
 +
*: {{transferMorphTest|miq|eng|yang{{tag|prn}}{{tag|subj}}{{tag|p1}} wîna{{tag|n}} kalila{{tag|n}} piras{{tag|v}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|neg}} | I{{tag|prn}}{{tag|subj}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|mf}}{{tag|sg}} eat{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|pres}} meat{{tag|n}} and{{tag|cnjcoo}}}} chicken{{tag|n}}
 +
 +
* {{transferTest|miq|eng|Titan pata ba pat ridi sa.| The breakfast is ready.}}
 +
*: {{transferMorphTest|miq|eng|titan{{tag|n}} pata{{tag|n}} ba{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}}{{tag|dst}} pat{{tag|adv}} ridi{{tag|adj}} sa{{tag|vkaia}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|p3}} | The{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}} breakfast{{tag|n}} be{{tag|vbser}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|p3}} ready{{tag|adj}}}}
  
 
===Adjective Order===
 
===Adjective Order===
* {{transferTest|miq|eng|aras ba sirpi sa| The horse is small}}  
+
In Miskito, adjectives come between the subject and the determiner. This is the reverse in English.
*: {{transferMorphTest|miq|eng|aras{{tag|n}} ba{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}}{{tag|dst}} sirpi{{tag|adj}} kaia{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|p3}} | The{{tag|det}} horse {{tag|n}} be{{tag|vbser}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|sg}} small{{tag|adj}}}}
+
 
 +
* {{transferTest|miq|eng|Bîp mairin nani ba yabal ra kan | The cows were on the road}}  
 +
*: {{transferMorphTest|miq|eng| bîp{{tag|n}} mairin{{tag|adj}} nani{{tag|det}}{{tag|pl}} ba{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}}{{tag|dst}} yabal{{tag|n}} ra{{tag|post}} kan{{tag|vkaia}}{{tag|past}}{{tag|p3}} | The{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}} cows{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}} be{{tag|vbser}}{{tag|past}}{{tag|p3}} on{{tag|pr}} the{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}} road{{tag|n}}}}
 +
 
 +
* {{transferTest|miq|eng|Yang plun damni daukri | I made sweet food}}
 +
*: {{transferMorphTest|miq|eng| yang{{tag|prn}}{{tag|subj}}{{tag|p1}} plun{{tag|n}} damni{{tag|adj}} daukri{{tag|v}}{{tag|past}}{{tag|p1}} | I{{tag|prn}}{{tag|subj}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|mf}}{{tag|sg}} made{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|past}}{{tag|p1}} sweet{{tag|adj}} food{{tag|n}}}}
  
 
===Subject Deletion===
 
===Subject Deletion===
* {{transferTest|miq|eng| wapri| I walked}}
+
Unlike English, first person verbs can stand alone to make a grammatically correct sentence.
*: {{transferMorphTest|miq|eng| wapri{{tag|v}}{{tag|past}}{{tag|p1}} | I{{tag|prn}}{{tag|p1}} walked{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|past}}}}
+
  
===Plurals===
+
* {{transferTest|miq|eng| Mai kaikisna | I see you}}
In Miskito, plurality is created by adding the word ''nani'' after the noun.
+
*: {{transferMorphTest|miq|eng| mai{{tag|prn}}{{tag|obj}}{{tag|p2}} kaikisna{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|p1}} | I{{tag|prn}}{{tag|subj}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|mf}}{{tag|sg}} see{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|p1}} you{{tag|prn}}{{tag|obj}}{{tag|p2}}{{tag|sg}}}}
  
* {{transferTest|miq|eng| Aras nani ba| The horses}}  
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* {{transferTest|miq|eng| Ai kaikan| He saw me}}  
*: {{transferMorphTest|miq|eng| Aras{{tag|n}} nani{{tag|det}}{{tag|pl}}{{tag|def}} ba{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}}{{tag|dst}} | The{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}} horses{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}}}
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*: {{transferMorphTest|miq|eng| ai{{tag|prn}}{{tag|obj}}{{tag|p1}} kaikan{{tag|v}}{{tag|past}}{{tag|p3}} | he{{tag|prn}}{{tag|subj}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|sg}} see{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|past}}{{tag|p3}} me{{tag|prn}}{{tag|obj}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|sg}}}}
  
 +
===Plurals===
 +
In Miskito, plurality is created by adding the word ''nani'' after the noun. In contrast, English creates plurals by adding ''s'' to the end of nouns.
  
 +
* {{transferTest|miq|eng| Yang bîp nani kaikri | I saw the cows}}
 +
*: {{transferMorphTest|miq|eng| yang{{tag|prn}}{{tag|subj}}{{tag|p1}} bîp{{tag|n}} nani{{tag|det}}{{tag|pl}} kaikri{{tag|v}}{{tag|past}}{{tag|p1}} | I{{tag|prn}}{{tag|subj}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|mf}}{{tag|sg}} saw{{tag|vblex}}{{tag|past}}{{tag|p1}} the{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}} cows{{tag|n}}{{tag|pl}}}}
 +
 +
* {{transferTest|miq|eng| Witin nani pain sa | They are good}}
 +
*: {{transferMorphTest|miq|eng| witin{{tag|prn}}{{tag|subj}}{{tag|p3}} nani{{tag|det}}{{tag|pl}} pain{{tag|adj}} sa{{tag|vkaia}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|p3}} | They{{tag|prn}}{{tag|subj}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|sg}} are{{tag|vbser}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|p3}} good{{tag|adj}}}}
  
 
===Possessives===
 
===Possessives===
* {{transferTest|miq|eng| man araskam| Your horse}}  
+
Posession in Miskito modifies the possessed noun with a suffix. Whereas in English, possession is marked on the possessor.
*: {{transferMorphTest|miq|eng| man{{tag|prn}}{{tag|p2}} araskam{{tag|n}}{{tag|px2sg}}| your{{tag|det}}{{tag|px2sg}} horse{{tag|n}}}}
+
 
 +
* {{transferTest|miq|eng| man araskam | Your horse}}  
 +
*: {{transferMorphTest|miq|eng| man{{tag|prn}}{{tag|p2}} araskam{{tag|n}}{{tag|px2}}| your{{tag|det}}{{tag|px2sg}} horse{{tag|n}}}}
 +
 
 +
* {{transferTest|miq|eng| Yang bîkki tibil ra sa | My bag is on the table}}
 +
*: {{transferMorphTest|miq|eng| yang{{tag|prn}}{{tag|subj}}{{tag|p1}} bîkki{{tag|n}}{{tag|px1}} tibil{{tag|n}} ra{{tag|post}} sa{{tag|vkaia}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|p3}} | my{{tag|det}}{{tag|px1sg}} bag{{tag|n}} is{{tag|vbser}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|p3}} on{{tag|pr}} the{{tag|det}}{{tag|def}} table{{tag|n}}}}
  
  
 
[[Category:Sp21_ContrastiveGrammars]] [[Category: Miskito]] [[Category: English]]
 
[[Category:Sp21_ContrastiveGrammars]] [[Category: Miskito]] [[Category: English]]

Latest revision as of 11:44, 12 May 2021

Miq-Eng tests

Object Order

Miskito is an SOV language, so the object phrase always follows the noun phrase and generally precedes the verb phrase (there are some exceptions). In contrast, English is an SVO language.

  • (miq) Yang wal wîna kalila piras. → (eng) I don't eat meat and chicken
    (miq) yang<prn><subj><p1> wîna<n> kalila<n> piras<v><p1><neg> → (eng) I<prn><subj><p1><mf><sg> eat<vblex><pres> meat<n> and<cnjcoo> chicken<n>
  • (miq) Titan pata ba pat ridi sa. → (eng) The breakfast is ready.
    (miq) titan<n> pata<n> ba<det><def><dst> pat<adv> ridi<adj> sa<vkaia><pres><p3> → (eng) The<det><def> breakfast<n> be<vbser><pres><p3> ready<adj>

Adjective Order

In Miskito, adjectives come between the subject and the determiner. This is the reverse in English.

  • (miq) Bîp mairin nani ba yabal ra kan → (eng) The cows were on the road
    (miq) bîp<n> mairin<adj> nani<det><pl> ba<det><def><dst> yabal<n> ra<post> kan<vkaia><past><p3> → (eng) The<det><def> cows<n><pl> be<vbser><past><p3> on<pr> the<det><def> road<n>
  • (miq) Yang plun damni daukri → (eng) I made sweet food
    (miq) yang<prn><subj><p1> plun<n> damni<adj> daukri<v><past><p1> → (eng) I<prn><subj><p1><mf><sg> made<vblex><past><p1> sweet<adj> food<n>

Subject Deletion

Unlike English, first person verbs can stand alone to make a grammatically correct sentence.

  • (miq) Mai kaikisna → (eng) I see you
    (miq) mai<prn><obj><p2> kaikisna<v><pres><p1> → (eng) I<prn><subj><p1><mf><sg> see<vblex><pres><p1> you<prn><obj><p2><sg>
  • (miq) Ai kaikan → (eng) He saw me
    (miq) ai<prn><obj><p1> kaikan<v><past><p3> → (eng) he<prn><subj><p3><sg> see<vblex><past><p3> me<prn><obj><p1><sg>

Plurals

In Miskito, plurality is created by adding the word nani after the noun. In contrast, English creates plurals by adding s to the end of nouns.

  • (miq) Yang bîp nani kaikri → (eng) I saw the cows
    (miq) yang<prn><subj><p1> bîp<n> nani<det><pl> kaikri<v><past><p1> → (eng) I<prn><subj><p1><mf><sg> saw<vblex><past><p1> the<det><def> cows<n><pl>
  • (miq) Witin nani pain sa → (eng) They are good
    (miq) witin<prn><subj><p3> nani<det><pl> pain<adj> sa<vkaia><pres><p3> → (eng) They<prn><subj><p3><sg> are<vbser><pres><p3> good<adj>

Possessives

Posession in Miskito modifies the possessed noun with a suffix. Whereas in English, possession is marked on the possessor.

  • (miq) man araskam → (eng) Your horse
    (miq) man<prn><p2> araskam<n><px2> → (eng) your<det><px2sg> horse<n>
  • (miq) Yang bîkki tibil ra sa → (eng) My bag is on the table
    (miq) yang<prn><subj><p1> bîkki<n><px1> tibil<n> ra<post> sa<vkaia><pres><p3> → (eng) my<det><px1sg> bag<n> is<vbser><pres><p3> on<pr> the<det><def> table<n>