Miyako/Universal Dependencies

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withmorph nomorph
LAS UAS LAS UAS Forms Sentences
Corpus 1 22.22% 22.22% 55.56% 77.78% 11
Corpus 2 5

Dependency Relations


A number of the sentences in the corpora I used for this assignment had subordinating clauses, many of which had きゃー (while) as the subordinating conjunction. ぞぅが (but) is another common one. That subordinating conjunction is dependent on the root of the main sentence.

  • Here is a sentence with this relation:
    むるうきゃー っみゃ やらびぬ っみゃ じてんしゃから っみゃ ってぃ っみゃ。
    gather-thm=acc=while dsc child=gen dsc bicycle=abl dsc come.cvb_abs dsc
    (I suspect this may be nom instead of gen.)
        "きゃー" cnjsub
                "むる" v acc @advcl #1->7
        "っみゃ" ij @discourse #2->7
        "やらび" n gen @nsubj #3->7
        "っみゃ" ij @discourse #4->7
        "じてんしゃ" n abl @obl #5->7
        "っみゃ" ij @discourse #6->7
        "ってぃ" v cvb_abs @root #7->0
        "っみゃ" ij @discourse #8->7
        "。" sent @punct #9->7
  • Here is the relevant bit of another example:
    あい むるうきゃー やらびぬ じてんしゃから ってぃ
    this_way gather-thm=acc=while child=gen bicycle=abl come.cvb_abs
    (I have the same suspicion about gen and nom.)
        "あい" adv @advmod #12->13
        "きゃー" cnjsub
                "むる" v acc @advcl #13->16
        "やらび" n gen @nsubj #14->16
        "じてんしゃ" n abl @obl #15->16
        "ってぃ" v cvb_abs @root #16->0


There are a handful of words which I am treating as auxiliary verbs. The two main examples are the continuous and the resultative.

  • An example with the continuous:
    やみ うい
    ache-thm.cvb cont.npst
        "やみ" v cvb_abs @parataxis #4->7
        "う" vaux @aux #5->4
  • An example with the resultative:
    ふぃー あいば
    give.cvb_abs res-csl
        "ふぃ" v cvb_abs @root #6->0
        "ば" vaux
                "あ" vaux @aux #7->6


There are a large number of words tagged as discourse markers and interjections in this corpus. These words are dependent on the root of the sentence.

  • Here is one example:
    うらあ ひてぃったま とぅいー ふぁうっちゃーんな ふぅーきゃー っみゃ。
    it=top1 one_portion take.cvb_abs eat.sim=top1 come.cvb_abs=while dsc
        "うら" prn dem p3 sg nn top1 @obj #1->3
        "ったま" cl abs 
                "ひてぃ" num @nmod #2->1
        "とぅい" v cvb_abs @conj #3->4
        "ふぁう" v cvb_sim top1 @root #4->0
        "きゃー" cnjsub
                "ふぅ" v cvb_abs  @aux #5->4
        "っみゃ" ij @discourse #6->4
        "。" sent @punct #7->4

  • There is another example here:
    なうがら うぬ おじさんな っさんそぅが
    dsc det old_guy=top1 know.neg.npst=but
        "なうがら" ij @discourse #1->6
        "うぬ" det dem @det #2->3
        "おじさん" n top1 @nsubj #3->4
        "そぅが" cnjsub
                "っさ" v neg @parataxis #4->6
        "ぬす" n top1 @nsubj #5->6
        "そぅが" cnjsub
                "っさ" v neg @root #6->0


Direct objects are often marked with the accusative marker う in Miyako. However, in this corpus, there were a number of cases where I tagged a word as a direct object despite the use of a different particle, since that seemed to be how it was being used.

  • This is an example with the accusative marker.
    じてんしゃう くぎー
    bicycle=acc row.cvb_abs
          "じてんしゃ" n acc @obj #14->15
          "くず" v cvb_abs #15
  • This same combination of words also appears without the accusative marker.
    じてんしゃ くぎー
    bicycle=abs row.cvb_abs
         "じてんしゃ" n abs @obj #6->7
         "くず" v cvb_abs


This is the connection between a noun and another noun that is modifying it. That often happens with the genitive marker, but not always. Furthermore, I suspect that the genitive and nominative glosses were at times confused when the pear story was being glossed, as they can both be either が or ぬ, and there are instances where the gloss simply does not make sense. There are also multiple instances with number words.

  • An example with the genitive marker:
    びきやらびぬ みちゃーいや
    male+child=gen three+people=top1
        "びきやらび" n gen @nmod #2->3
        "ちゃーい" cl top1
                "みー" num @nsubj #3->4
  • Here is an example with a number word:
    うらあ ひてぃったま
    it=top1 one_portion=abs
        "うら" prn dem p3 sg nn top1 @obj #1->3
        "ったま" cl abs
                "ひてぃ" num @nmod #2->1