Difference between revisions of "Purépecha/grammar"

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(literally fixed everything we did wrong before)
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{{morphTest|yurhíri{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|obj}}|yurhírini}} (blood)
 
{{morphTest|yurhíri{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|obj}}|yurhírini}} (blood)
 +
 +
{{morphTest|kuchíyu{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|obj}}|kuchíyuni}} (knife)
 +
 +
{{morphTest|táa{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|obj}}|táani}} (house)
 +
 +
{{morphTest|sapí{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|obj}}|sapíni}} (child)
 +
 +
{{morphTest|ayxádu{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|obj}}|ayxáduni}} (godson)
 +
 +
{{morphTest|wíchu{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|obj}}|wíchuni}} (dog)
 +
 +
{{morphTest|xatsíkwarhikwa{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|obj}}|xatsíkwarhikwani}} (treasure or wealth)
 +
 +
{{morphTest|kabáyu{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|obj}}|kabáyuni}} (horse)
 +
 +
{{morphTest|doktóri{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|obj}}|doktórini}} (doctor)
 +
 +
{{morphTest|xurámuti{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|obj}}|xurámuti}} (chief)
 +
 +
{{morphTest|kúchi{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|obj}}|kúchini}} (pig)
 +
 +
{{morphTest|maríkwa{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|obj}}|maríkwani}} (girl)
 +
 +
{{morphTest|tsakápu{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|obj}}|tsakápuni}} (stone)
 +
 +
{{morphTest|charháku{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|obj}}|charhákuni}} (baby)
 +
 +
{{morphTest|káxa{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|obj}}|káxani}} (box)
 +
 +
{{morphTest|korráli{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|obj}}|korrálini}} (pen)
 +
 +
{{morphTest|tsúntsu{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|obj}}|tsúntsuni}} (pot)
  
 
=== Verbs ===
 
=== Verbs ===
Line 39: Line 71:
 
A few examples we:
 
A few examples we:
  
{{morphTest|kw’i{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|dur}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|sg}}|kw’ixakani}}
+
{{morphTest|kw’i{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|dur}}{{tag|p1}}|kw’ixaka}}
 +
 
 +
{{morphTest|kw’i{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|dur}}{{tag|p2}}|kw’ixaka}}
 +
 
 +
{{morphTest|eshé{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|perf}}{{tag|p1}}|eshéska}}
  
{{morphTest|kw’i{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|ass}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|sg}}|kw’ixakani}}
+
{{morphTest|eshé{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|perf}}{{tag|p2}}|eshéska}}
  
{{morphTest|eshé{{tag|v}}{{tag|pprs}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|1/2ind}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|sg}}|eshéshakani}}
+
{{morphTest|eshé{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|perf}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|sg}}|eshésti}}
  
{{morphTest|jwá{{tag|v}}{{tag|perf}}{{tag|past}}{{tag|3ind}}|jwáspti}}
+
{{morphTest|jwá{{tag|v}}{{tag|past}}{{tag|perf}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|sg}}|jwáspti}}
  
 
==== Roots and Agents ====
 
==== Roots and Agents ====
Line 51: Line 87:
 
The suffix-nominalising suffix, most frequently -kwa (-ka in some varieties) as in pire-kwa; -ri, the most common nominalising suffix, generally refers to an agent, as in pire-ri 'singer'.
 
The suffix-nominalising suffix, most frequently -kwa (-ka in some varieties) as in pire-kwa; -ri, the most common nominalising suffix, generally refers to an agent, as in pire-ri 'singer'.
  
pire{{tag|inf}} (to sing)
+
pire<inf> (to sing)
  
 
{{morphTest|pire{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}|pirekwa}} (song)
 
{{morphTest|pire{{tag|n}}{{tag|sg}}|pirekwa}} (song)
Line 61: Line 97:
 
Aspect and tense markers are the same for all persons, but the indicative mood morpheme changes from -ka for the 1st and 2nd person to -ti for the 3rd person. Aspect co-occurs with tense and mood.
 
Aspect and tense markers are the same for all persons, but the indicative mood morpheme changes from -ka for the 1st and 2nd person to -ti for the 3rd person. Aspect co-occurs with tense and mood.
  
{{morphTest|wanta{{tag|v}}{{tag|pass}}{{tag|hab}}{{tag|past}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|ass}}{{tag|pl}}{{tag|poss}}|wantanaxïnanti}}
 
  
yontki wantanaxïnanti juchari anapu
+
{{morphTest|t’iré{{tag|v}}{{tag|past}}{{tag|perf}}{{tag|p1}}|t’iréspka}}
  
before speak language
+
{{morphTest|t’iré{{tag|v}}{{tag|past}}{{tag|perf}}{{tag|p2}}|t’iréspka}}
  
'Before, our language was spoken.'
+
{{morphTest|t’iré{{tag|v}}{{tag|fut}}{{tag|p1}}|t’iréaka}}
  
 +
{{morphTest|t’iré{{tag|v}}{{tag|fut}}{{tag|p2}}|t’iréaka}}
  
{{morphTest|t’{{tag|v}}{{tag|prf}}{{tag|past}}{{tag|sbjv}}|t’iréspka}}
+
{{morphTest|t’iré{{tag|v}}{{tag|fut}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|sg}}|t’iréati}}
  
ximpóka xuchá/María t’iréspka ya
+
{{morphTest|t’iré{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|dur}}{{tag|itg}}|t’iréxaki}}
  
because  Maria<pl> eat already
+
{{morphTest|xanó{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|perf}}{{tag|p1}}|xanóska}}
  
‘ . . . because we have already eaten/Maria has already eaten.’
+
{{morphTest|xanó{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|perf}}{{tag|p2}}|xanóska}}
  
 +
{{morphTest|xanó{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|perf}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|sg}}|xanósti}}
  
{{morphTest|xanó{{tag|v}}{{tag|prf}}{{tag|past}}{{tag|sbjv}}|xanópka}}
+
{{morphTest|xanó{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|perf}}{{tag|itg}}|xanóski}}
  
{{morphTest|t’{{tag|p2}}{{tag|sg}}|t’ú}}
+
{{morphTest|kachúku{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|perf}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|sg}}|kachúkusti}}
  
{{morphTest|tumpí{{tag|pl}}tumpíicha|}}
+
{{morphTest|xáma{{tag|v}}{{tag|fut}}{{tag|p1}}|xámaaka}}
  
éka t’ú/tumpíicha xanó-∅-p-ka ya
+
{{morphTest|xáma{{tag|v}}{{tag|fut}}{{tag|p2}}|xámaaka}}
  
when boy arrive already
+
{{morphTest|segíri{{tag|v}}{{tag|past}}{{tag|perf}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|sg}}|segírispti}}
 +
 
 +
{{morphTest|xwá{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|perf}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|sg}}|xwásti}}
 +
 
 +
{{morphTest|atárant’a{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|perf}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|sg}}|atárant’asti}}
 +
 
 +
{{morphTest|kweráta{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|dur}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|sg}}|kwerátaxati}}
  
‘ . . . when you had already arrived/the boys had already arrived.’
 
  
 
===== Present Actual =====
 
===== Present Actual =====
Line 185: Line 227:
 
{{morphTest|pire{{tag|v}}{{tag|fut}}{{tag|itg}}|pirea}}
 
{{morphTest|pire{{tag|v}}{{tag|fut}}{{tag|itg}}|pirea}}
  
==== Irrealis ====
+
==== Irrealis or Future ====
  
ni-a-ti go (He will go)
+
{{morphTest|ni{{tag|v}}{{tag|fut}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|sg}}|niati}}
 
+
{{morphTest|ni{{tag|v}}{{tag|irr}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|sg}}|niati}}
+
 
+
ewa-a-a-ka remove ('I will remove them.')
+
 
+
{{morphTest|ewa{{tag|v}}{{tag|3PL.O}}{{tag|irr}}{{tag|ass}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|sg}}|ewaaaka}}
+
  
 
==== Mood ====
 
==== Mood ====
Line 214: Line 250:
 
Atá-s-Ø-ka <nowiki>strike-prf-prs-1/2ind</nowiki>
 
Atá-s-Ø-ka <nowiki>strike-prf-prs-1/2ind</nowiki>
  
{{morphTest|Atá{{tag|v}}{{tag|prf}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|ind}}{{tag|p1}}|Atáska}}
+
{{morphTest|Atá{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|perf}}{{tag|p1}}|Atáska}}
  
{{morphTest|Atá{{tag|v}}{{tag|prf}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|ind}}{{tag|p2}}|Atáska}}
+
{{morphTest|Atá{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|perf}}{{tag|p2}}|Atáska}}
  
{{morphTest|Atá{{tag|v}}{{tag|prf}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|ind}}{{tag|p3}}|Atásti}}
+
{{morphTest|Atá{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|perf}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|sg}}|Atásti}}
  
xupá-s-Ø-ka=ni <nowiki>wash-prf-prs-1/2ind=1sg.sbj</nowiki>
+
{{morphTest|xupá{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|perf}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|sg}}|xupáskani}}
  
{{morphTest|xupá{{tag|v}}{{tag|prf}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|sbj}}{{tag|p1}}|xupáskani}}
+
{{morphTest|xanó{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|perf}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|sg}}|xanóskani}}
 
+
xanó-s-Ø-ka=ni arrive-prf-prs-1/2ind=1sg.sbj
+
 
+
{{morphTest|xanó{{tag|v}}{{tag|prf}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|sg}}{{tag|sbj}}{{tag|p1}}|xanóskani}}
+
  
  
Line 235: Line 267:
 
Aspect and tense markers are the same for all persons, but the indicative mood morpheme changes from -ka for the 1st and 2nd person to -ti for the 3rd person.
 
Aspect and tense markers are the same for all persons, but the indicative mood morpheme changes from -ka for the 1st and 2nd person to -ti for the 3rd person.
  
eró+ka-sha-ka
 
  
{{morphTest|eró{{tag|prog}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|ind}}|erókashaka}}
+
{{morphTest|eró{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|dur}}{{tag|p1}}|eróxaka}}
  
{{morphTest|eró{{tag|prog}}{{tag|p2}}{{tag|ind}}|erókashaka}}
+
{{morphTest|eró{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|dur}}{{tag|p2}}|eróxaka}}
 
+
‘I / you / we / you(pl) are waiting’
+
 
+
 
+
eró+ka-sha-ti
+
 
+
{{morphTest|eró{{tag|prog}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|ind}}|erókashati}}
+
 
+
‘He/they are waiting’
+
  
  
 
If one wishes to be more specific about the subject number, a set of clitics can be optionally attached to the inflected verb:
 
If one wishes to be more specific about the subject number, a set of clitics can be optionally attached to the inflected verb:
  
eró+ka-sha-ka=ni
+
{{morphTest|eró{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|dur}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|sg}}|eróxakani}}
{{morphTest|eró{{tag|prog}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|ind}}{{tag|s_sg1}}|erókashakani}}
+
 
+
‘I am waiting’
+
 
+
 
+
eró+ka-sha-ka=ri
+
{{morphTest|eró{{tag|prog}}{{tag|p2}}{{tag|ind}}{{tag|s_sg2}}|erókashakani}}
+
 
+
‘You are waiting’
+
 
+
 
+
eró+ka-sha-ti
+
{{morphTest|eró{{tag|prog}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|ind}}|erókashati}}
+
 
+
‘He/they are waiting’
+
 
+
eró+ka-sha-ka=tsï
+
{{morphTest|eró{{tag|prog}}{{tag|p2}}{{tag|ind}}{{tag|s_pl2}}|erókashatsï}}
+
 
+
‘You (pl) are waiting’
+
  
eró+ka-sha-ka=ksï
+
{{morphTest|eró{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|dur}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|pl}}|eróxakaksï}}
{{morphTest|eró{{tag|prog}}{{tag|p1}}{{tag|ind}}{{tag|s_pl1}}|erókashaksï}}
+
  
‘We are waiting’
+
{{morphTest|eró{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|dur}}{{tag|p2}}{{tag|sg}}|eróxakari}}
  
eró+ka-sha-ti=ksï
+
{{morphTest|eró{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|dur}}{{tag|p2}}{{tag|pl}}|eróxakatsï}}
{{morphTest|eró{{tag|prog}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|ind}}{{tag|s_pl3}}|erókashatiksï}}
+
  
‘They are waiting’
+
{{morphTest|eró{{tag|v}}{{tag|pres}}{{tag|dur}}{{tag|p3}}{{tag|pl}}|eróxatiksï}}
  
 
=== Others ===
 
=== Others ===

Revision as of 15:51, 28 March 2021

Purépechan Grammar

Parts of Speech

Nouns

Singular

These forms take no further nominal morphology apart from the appropriate case markers, such as the objective -ni or the plural marker -cha.

wari<n><sg> ↔ wari (woman)

kurú<n><sg> ↔ kurú (fish)

anátapu<n><sg> ↔ anátapu (tree)

Plural

Irrespective of their formation method, nouns are pluralised with the suffix -echa, -icha, or -cha (depending on the variety).

wari<n><pl> ↔ wariecha (women)

kurú<n><pl> ↔ kurúcha (fishes)

anátapu<n><pl> ↔ anátapuicha (trees)

Case

In Purépecha, the nominative case (unmarked) is a coding property of subjects, while the suffix -ni is the case marker for objects, both in monotransitive and ditransitive constructions.

ganádu<n><pl><obj> ↔ ganáduni (cattle)

kurú<n><pl><obj> ↔ kurúchani (fish)

yurhíri<n><sg><obj> ↔ yurhírini (blood)

kuchíyu<n><sg><obj> ↔ kuchíyuni (knife)

táa<n><sg><obj> ↔ táani (house)

sapí<n><sg><obj> ↔ sapíni (child)

ayxádu<n><sg><obj> ↔ ayxáduni (godson)

wíchu<n><sg><obj> ↔ wíchuni (dog)

xatsíkwarhikwa<n><sg><obj> ↔ xatsíkwarhikwani (treasure or wealth)

kabáyu<n><sg><obj> ↔ kabáyuni (horse)

doktóri<n><sg><obj> ↔ doktórini (doctor)

xurámuti<n><sg><obj> ↔ xurámuti (chief)

kúchi<n><sg><obj> ↔ kúchini (pig)

maríkwa<n><sg><obj> ↔ maríkwani (girl)

tsakápu<n><sg><obj> ↔ tsakápuni (stone)

charháku<n><sg><obj> ↔ charhákuni (baby)

káxa<n><sg><obj> ↔ káxani (box)

korráli<n><sg><obj> ↔ korrálini (pen)

tsúntsu<n><sg><obj> ↔ tsúntsuni (pot)

Verbs

Purépechan is a very agglutinative language, meaning that the words in the language are made by stringing together morphemes. A large portion of the agglutination happens in the verbs. Adding suffixes to the words can help users express locative, directional, causative, voice/valency, desiderative, adverbial, third person plural object, aspect, tense, irrealis, mood, and person and number. A few examples we:

kw’i<v><pres><dur><p1> ↔ kw’ixaka

kw’i<v><pres><dur><p2> ↔ kw’ixaka

eshé<v><pres><perf><p1> ↔ eshéska

eshé<v><pres><perf><p2> ↔ eshéska

eshé<v><pres><perf><p3><sg> ↔ eshésti

jwá<v><past><perf><p3><sg> ↔ jwáspti

Roots and Agents

The suffix-nominalising suffix, most frequently -kwa (-ka in some varieties) as in pire-kwa; -ri, the most common nominalising suffix, generally refers to an agent, as in pire-ri 'singer'.

pire<inf> (to sing)

pire<n><sg> ↔ pirekwa (song)

pire<n><sg> ↔ pireri (singer)

Aspect

Aspect and tense markers are the same for all persons, but the indicative mood morpheme changes from -ka for the 1st and 2nd person to -ti for the 3rd person. Aspect co-occurs with tense and mood.


t’iré<v><past><perf><p1> ↔ t’iréspka

t’iré<v><past><perf><p2> ↔ t’iréspka

t’iré<v><fut><p1> ↔ t’iréaka

t’iré<v><fut><p2> ↔ t’iréaka

t’iré<v><fut><p3><sg> ↔ t’iréati

t’iré<v><pres><dur><itg> ↔ t’iréxaki

xanó<v><pres><perf><p1> ↔ xanóska

xanó<v><pres><perf><p2> ↔ xanóska

xanó<v><pres><perf><p3><sg> ↔ xanósti

xanó<v><pres><perf><itg> ↔ xanóski

kachúku<v><pres><perf><p3><sg> ↔ kachúkusti

xáma<v><fut><p1> ↔ xámaaka

xáma<v><fut><p2> ↔ xámaaka

segíri<v><past><perf><p3><sg> ↔ segírispti

xwá<v><pres><perf><p3><sg> ↔ xwásti

atárant’a<v><pres><perf><p3><sg> ↔ atárant’asti

kweráta<v><pres><dur><p3><sg> ↔ kwerátaxati


Present Actual

pire<v><pres><prog><p1> ↔ pirexaka

pire<v><pres><prog><p2> ↔ pirexaka

pire<v><pres><prog><p3> ↔ pirexati

pire<v><pres><prog><itg> ↔ pirexaki

Present Habitual

pire<v><pres><hab><p1> ↔ piresinka

pire<v><pres><hab><p2> ↔ piresinka

pire<v><pres><hab><p3> ↔ piresindi

pire<v><pres><hab><itg> ↔ piresini

Present Perfect

pire<v><pres><perf><p1> ↔ pireska

pire<v><pres><perf><p2> ↔ pireska

pire<v><pres><perf><p3> ↔ piresti

pire<v><pres><perf><itg> ↔ pireski

Present Inceptive

pire<v><pres><incp><p1> ↔ pirexamka

pire<v><pres><incp><p2> ↔ pirexamka

pire<v><pres><incp><p3> ↔ pirexamti

pire<v><pres><incp><itg> ↔ pirexamki

Past Actual

pire<v><past><prog><p1> ↔ pirexapka

pire<v><past><prog><p2> ↔ pirexapka

pire<v><past><prog><p3> ↔ pirexapti

pire<v><past><prog><itg> ↔ pirexapi

Past Habitual

pire<v><past><hab><p1> ↔ piresiamka

pire<v><past><hab><p2> ↔ piresiamka

pire<v><past><hab><p3> ↔ piresiamti

pire<v><past><hab><itg> ↔ piresiambi

Past Perfect

pire<v><past><perf><p1> ↔ pirespka

pire<v><past><perf><p2> ↔ pirespka

pire<v><past><perf><p3> ↔ pirespti

pire<v><past><perf><itg> ↔ pirespi

Past Inceptive

pire<v><past><incp><p1> ↔ pirexamamga

pire<v><past><incp><p2> ↔ pirexamamga

pire<v><past><incp><p3> ↔ pirexamampti

pire<v><past><incp><itg> ↔ pirexamambi

Conditional

pire<v><cni><p1> ↔ pirepiringa

pire<v><cni><p2> ↔ pirepiringa

pire<v><cni><p3> ↔ pirepirindi

pire<v><cni><itg> ↔ pirepirini

Future

pire<v><fut><p1> ↔ pireaka

pire<v><fut><p2> ↔ pireaka

pire<v><fut><p3> ↔ pireati

pire<v><fut><itg> ↔ pirea

Irrealis or Future

ni<v><fut><p3><sg> ↔ niati

Mood

Purépecha the verbal inflection only distinguishes the person features of the subject in the indicative mood. The indicative verbal forms must be inflected in agreement with the grammatical subject: if the subject is 1st or 2nd person, the verb is marked with -ka; if it is 3rd person, then the marker is -ti. In contrast with the interrogative/clarificational inflection, marked with -∅ or -ki for all persons, and the subjunctive mood, marked with -ka regardless of the person of the subject.

Mood
Indicative nothing
Interrogative Ø or ki suffix
Subjunctive ka suffix

Atá-s-Ø-ka strike-prf-prs-1/2ind

Atá<v><pres><perf><p1> ↔ Atáska

Atá<v><pres><perf><p2> ↔ Atáska

Atá<v><pres><perf><p3><sg> ↔ Atásti

xupá<v><pres><perf><p1><sg> ↔ xupáskani

xanó<v><pres><perf><p1><sg> ↔ xanóskani


The object suffix -a is considered a 3rd person plural marker, which, according to some authors, has a pronominal or agreement value.

Person and Number

Aspect and tense markers are the same for all persons, but the indicative mood morpheme changes from -ka for the 1st and 2nd person to -ti for the 3rd person.


eró<v><pres><dur><p1> ↔ eróxaka

eró<v><pres><dur><p2> ↔ eróxaka


If one wishes to be more specific about the subject number, a set of clitics can be optionally attached to the inflected verb:

eró<v><pres><dur><p1><sg> ↔ eróxakani

eró<v><pres><dur><p1><pl> ↔ eróxakaksï

eró<v><pres><dur><p2><sg> ↔ eróxakari

eró<v><pres><dur><p2><pl> ↔ eróxakatsï

eró<v><pres><dur><p3><pl> ↔ eróxatiksï

Others

Determinants or Determiners

Purépecha does not have a definite determiner like English "the" or Spanish "el/los." Among the most common demonstratives are the singular forms í 'this', inté 'that (visible to the speaker)', and imá 'that (not visible to the speaker)', as well as the corresponding plural forms ts'ï 'these', ts'ïmí 'those', and ts'ïmá 'those'.

Determiners
iámindu 'all'
máru 'some'
imá 'that' (not visible to the speaker)
í 'this'
inté 'that' (visible to the speaker)
ts'ï 'these'
ts'ïmí 'those'
ts'ïmá 'those'

Examples:

í atá-s-∅-ti inté-ni

this strike<prf><prs><p3><ind> that<obj>

'This (one) struck that (one).'


ts'ïmá atá-s-∅-ti inté-ni

those strike<prf><prs><p3><ind> that<obj>

'Those struck that (one).'


ihtsï iámindu juát-icha júkska-kata jarha-h-ti

DEM.PL all hill<pl> sow<ppl> be<pfve><p3><ind>

‘All these hills are sown (with corn)’


ihtsï tanímu juát-icha júkska-kata jarha-h-ti

<dem><pl> three hill<pl> sow<ppl> be<pfve><p3><ind>

‘These three hills are sown (with corn)’

Reduplication

Reduplication is an available but limited morphological process. Single vowel roots and some CV roots such as pá- (carry) are not reduplicated. About 70 roots never occur unreduplicated (niní-n (to ripen)). About a dozen reduplicate only the first syllable. In general, practically any root can stand either alone or reduplicated.

Three Systems:

  • k'waní-k'waní-ta-n (to throw up repeatedly) -- an aspectual system
  • meré-meré-hku-n (to be very brilliant) -- modal system
  • p'uní-p'uní-hku-n (to blow off all over (as when dusting)) -- locative system

Examples:

  • učú-učú-hku-ndi-n (to smell of fish, sex, or carrion) -- spatial suffix (oral and facial, involves smell)
  • opó-opó-k-haśi (swollen (of the entire body)) -- the roots may be followed by one of six consonants and the stativizing suffix -hási ‘class, type of’, as in opó- ‘large, round’
  • kwená-hku-n (to lick upward (as of fire)) -- roots are followed by intransitivizing -hku
  • wá-wá-kuri-n (to be missing one’s teeth, leaves, etc.) -- reflexive theme
  • arí-arí-ta-n (to give advice) -- yield a transitive theme
  • yará-yará-c-ka-pa-n (to go about urinating on oneself) -- lexical/spatial suffix value of ‘bottom’
  • šún-šún-á-pi-ti (very green) -- only first CV is reduplicated
  • tíks-tíks-á-ni-n (to beat of fright) -- cavity/thorax spatial suffix