Purepecha and Spanish/Contrastive grammar
Lack of prepositions
Sentences in Purepechan can either include prepositions or have a locative. Purepechan was originally an agglutinative language and we have seen a lot of Spanish influence; the implementation of prepositions could be from Spanish influence.
- (tsz) Xí íntskuska itsîni maríkwani → (spa) Yo di agua a la niña
- (tsz) xí<n><sg> íntskuska<v><tv><pres><perf><p1> itsîni<n><sg><obj> maríkwani<n><sg><obj> → (spa) yo<prn><tn><p1><mf><sg> dar<vblex> agua<n><f> a<pr> la<det><def><sg> niña<n><f>
- (tsz) Xwánu ikíasti xí xinkóni → (spa) Juan enojo conmigo
- (tsz) Xwánu<np><sg> ikíasti<v><iv><perf><pres><p3> xí<n><sg> xinkóni<prep> → (spa) Juan<np><ant> enojar<vblex> conmigo<prn><tn><p1><mf><sg>
Object and Locative Overlap
Location of the noun can be indicated by a locative suffix (-rhu) or a object suffix (-ni).
Spanish introduces tonals
Translating into Spanish introduces a tonal tag for words that are differentiated with a tone
Spanish introduces gender
Nouns in Purepechan do not have gender and they have one verb ending that refers to an ambiguous he/she/they.
Verb tenses are indicated by suffixes in tsz but they’re conjugated in Spanish
Purepechan is an agglutinative language so the verbs keep the same lemma, attaching suffixes to change the meaning of the verb (tense, mood, person). Spanish conjugates their verbs.