Asturian and English/Contrastive Grammar

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gendering of nouns and articles

In Asturian, nouns and articles are gendered, but in English, no such distinction exists

  • (ast) la llei → (eng) the law
    (ast) la<det><def><f><sg> llei<n><f><sg> → (eng) the<det><def><sp> law<n><sg>
  • (ast) el matrimoniu → (eng) the marriage
    (ast) el<det><def><m><sg> matrimoniu<n><f><sg> → (eng) the<det><def><sp> marriage<n><sg>

pluralization of articles

In Asturian, articles for plural subjects are pluralized, but in English, no such distinction exists

  • (ast) los pueblos → (eng) the peoples
    (ast) los<det><def><m><pl> pueblos<n><m><pl> → (eng) the<det><def><sp> peoples<n><pl>
  • (ast) los niños → (eng) the children
    (ast) los<det><def><m><pl> niños<n><m><pl> → (eng) the<det><def><sp> children<n><pl>

adjective-noun order

In Asturian, adjectives go after their nouns, but in English, adjectives go before their associated nouns. Additionally, English adjectives do not vary by number of subjects, however, Asturian adjectives do.

  • (ast) conceyu xeneral → (eng) general assembly
    (ast) conceyu<n><m><sg> xeneral<adj><nt><sg> → (eng) general<adj> assembly<n><sg>
  • (ast) procuru especiales → (eng) special care
    (ast) procuru<n><m><sg> especiales<adj><nt><pl> → (eng) special<adj> care<n><sg>

indicative vs. subjunctive distinction

Asturian verb forms distinguish between the indicative and subjunctive tenses, however, English verbs do not.

  • (ast) Toa persona tien → (eng) Everyone has
    (ast) Toa<det><ind><f><sg> persona<n><f><sg> tien<vblex><pri><p3><sg> → (eng) Everyone<prn><ind><mf><sg> has<vblex><pres><p3><sg>
  • (ast) será sometíu → (eng) shall be subjected
    (ast) será<vbser><fti><p3><sg> sometíu<vblex><pp><m><sg> → (eng) shall<vbmod><pres> be<vbser><inf> subjected<vblex><pp>


past participles

When discussing hypothetical verbs, English uses a modifier, infinitive verb, and past participle whereas Asturian uses both a similar form to English and a form using only a specially conjugated verb and a past participle

  • (ast) A naide nun se-y podrá obligar → (eng) No one may be compelled
    (ast) A naide nun se-y podrá<vblex><fti><p3><sg> obligar<inf> → (eng) No one may<vbmod><inf> be<vbser><inf> compelled<vblex><pp>
  • (ast) podrá ser deteníu → (eng) may be detained
    (ast) podrá<vblex><fti><p3><sg> ser<vbser><inf> deteníu<vblex><pp><m><sg> → (eng) No one may<vbmod><inf> be<vbser><inf> detained<vblex><pp>