Eastern Burushaski and English/Contrastive Grammar

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bsk-eng Tests

Ergative/Absolutive

English is a nom/acc language while Burushaski is an erg/abs language. A such, Burushaski treats the object of transitive verbs like the subject of intransitive verbs, while English treats the subjects of these two types of verbs similarly and distinguishes the object.

Examples:

  • (bsk) e tis amana baa. → (eng) I made a mistake. (#I #mistake #I# become #be.)
    • (bsk) e<prn><pers><p1><sg><erg> tis<n> amana<v> b<cop><pres><ind><p1><sg> → (eng) prpers<prn><subj><p1><mf><sg> make<vblex><past> a mistake
  • (bsk) aa ine gane t̪ayaar baa. → (eng) I am ready for him ( #I #that #for.the.sake.of #ready #be.)
    • (bsk) e<prn><pers><p1><sg><abs> in<prn><dem><dst><sg><mf> gane<post> t̪ayaar<n> b<cop><pres><ind><p1><sg> → (eng) prpers<prn><subj><p1><mf><sg> be<vbser><pres><p1><sg> ready<adv> for<pr> prpers<prn><obj><p3><m><sg>

In these examples, it is evident that the Burushaski sentences contain different first-person pronouns while English uses "I" in both cases.

Verb Final

Burushaski is a SOV language, while English is SVO. This difference can be accounted or by changing the word order.

  • (bsk) d̪aa šaam meey bila. → (eng) It gets dark again. ( #and #evening #become.IPFV #be.)
    • (bsk) d̪aa<conn> šaam<n> meey<v> b<cop><pres><ind><p3><sg><cly> → (eng) prpers<prn><subj><p3><nt><sg> get<vblex><pres><p3><sg> dark again<adv>
  • (bsk) it̪e paad̪šaa buc̣ bila. → (eng) That is the oriental plane of the king. ( #that #king #oriental.plane.(tree.species) #be.)
    • (bsk) in<prn><dem><dst><sg><cly><erg> paad̪šaa<n> buc̣<n> b<cop><pres><ind><p3><sg><cly> → (eng) that<prn><dem><mf><sg> be<vbser><pres><p3><sg> the<det><def><sp> oriental<adj> plane<n><sg> of<pr> the<det><def><sp> king<n><sg>
  • (bsk) ine paad̪šaa t̪alo yuu bam. → (eng) That king had seven sons. (#that #king #seven #sons #be.)
    • (bsk) in<prn><dem><dst><sg><mf> paad̪šaa<n> t̪ʰalo<num><mfclx> yuu<n><pl> b<cop><past><ind><p1><pl> → (eng) that<det><dem><sg> king<n><sg> have<vblex><past> seven<num><pl> son<n><pl>

Shown in these examples, the copula is consistently placed at the end of the sentence, while in English, it usually follows the subject.

Case Marking

Burushaski marks nouns for case, while English uses prepositions.

  • (bsk) kuult̪o eer ečam → (eng) Today I will do it for him
    • (bsk) kuult̪o<adv> e<prn><pers><p3><sg><dat><v><p1><sg> → (eng) for<pr> prpers<prn><obj><p3><m><sg>
  • (bsk) ine gušpurate es baas basimi → (eng) That falcon sat on the prince
    • (bsk) in<prn><dem><dst><sg><mf> gušpur<n><loc> ^es<dem> baas<n> bas<v><iv><p3><sg><m> that<det><dem><sg> falcon<n><sg> sit<vblex><past> on<pr> the<det><def><sp> prince<n><sg> → (eng) {{{4}}}

Postpositions

  • (bsk) aa ine gane t̪ayaar baa → (eng) I am ready for him
    • (bsk) e<prn><pers><p1><sg><abs> in<prn><dem><dst><sg><mf> gane<post> t̪ayaar<n> b<cop><pres><ind><p1><sg> → (eng) prpers<prn><subj><p1><mf><sg> be<vbser><pres><p1><sg> ready/ready<adv>/ready<adj><sint> for/for<cnjadv>/for<pr> prpers<prn><obj><p3><m><sg>

Question Particle

  • (bsk) d̪aa it̪eer šaan e naa → (eng) And please be careful of that
    • (bsk) d̪aa<conn> in<prn><dem><dst><sg><cly><dat> šaan<adj> e<prn><pers><p1><sg><erg> naa<q> → (eng) and<cnjcoo> please<ij> be<vbser><inf> careful<adj> of<pr> that<prn><dem><mf><sg>