English and Nivkh/Contrastive Grammar

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niv-eng tests

  • Future tag becomes "will"
  • cvb_nar1 should turn into "-ing"
  • Nivkh is SOV and English is SVO
  • Make relative clauses work
  • Translate case endings as prepositions

Examples

put in + signs where appropriate? —Jwashin1 (talk) 16:37, 15 April 2019 (EDT)

Add a "will" before word with future tense

  • (niv) иф иғдь. → (eng) He killed him
    (niv) иф<prn><pers><p3><sg> иғ<v><tv><ind> .<sent> → (eng) prpers<prn><p3><m><subj><sg> kill<vblex><past> prpers<prn><p3><m><obj><sg> .<sent>
  • (niv) иф иғныдь. → (eng) He will kill him
    (niv) иф<prn><pers><p3><sg> иғ<v><tv><fut><ind> .<sent> → (eng) prpers<prn><p3><m><subj><sg> will<vbmod><pres> kill<vblex><inf> prpers<prn><p3><m><obj><sg> .<sent>

Relative Clauses

  • (niv) нивхӄʼатумгу пʼудь. → (eng) the woman who scolded the man went out.
    (niv) нивх<n>+ӽат<v><tv>+умгу<n> пʼу<v><iv><ind> .<sent> → (eng) the<det><def><sp> woman<n><sg> who<prn><rel><an><mf><sp> scold<vblex><past> the<det><def><sp> man<n><sg> go out<vblex><past> .<sent>
  • (niv) ытык пʼызнивхордь. → (eng) father met the man who had called him.
    (niv) ытык<n> пʼи<prn><ref>+ыз<v><tv>+нивх<n>+ор<v><tv><ind> .<sent> → (eng) father<n><sg> meet<vblex><past> the<det><def><sp> man<n><sg> who<prn><rel><an><mf><sp> have<vbhaver><past> call<vblex><pp> prpers<prn><p3><m><obj><sg>.<sent>

Converbs end with "-ing" in english

  • (niv) ӿоӻор озр видь. → (eng) then, standing up, he went away.
    (niv) ӿоӻор<cnjadv> оз<v><iv><cvb_nar1><p3><sg> ви<v><tv> .<sent> → (eng) then<cvjadv> ,<cm> stand<vblex><pprs> up<adv> ,<cm> prpers<prn><p3><m><subj><sg> go<vblex><past> away<adv> .<sent>
  • (niv) нёх рғопт эзмудь. → (eng) touching it in the barn, rejoiced.
    (niv) нё<n><abl> рғоп<v><tv><cvb_nar1><p1><pl> эзму<v><tv><ind><pl> .<sent> → (eng) touch<vblex><pprs> it<prn><p3><nt><obj><sg> in<pr> the<det><def><sp> barn<n><sg> ,<cm> they<prn><p3><mf><subj><pl> rejoice<vblex><past> .<sent>

SVO

  • (niv) умгу леп пʼоолаардь. → (eng) the woman fed her child bread.
    (niv) умгу<n> леп<n> пʼи<det><ref><poss>+оола<n>+ар<v><tv><ind> .<sent> → (eng) the <det><def><sp> woman<n><sg> fed<vblex><past> prpers<det><pos><p3><f><sg> child<n><sg> bread<n><s> .<sent>
  • (niv) оола пʼӈафӄзадь. → (eng) the child beat his friend.
    (niv) оола<n> пʼи<det><ref><poss>+ӈафӄ<n>+за<v><tv><ind> .<sent> → (eng) the <det><def><sp> child<n><sg> beat<vblex><past> prpers<det><pos><p3><m><sg> friend<n><sg> .<sent>

Case endings as prepositions

  • (niv) иф ӄʼахкир ӄʼотркʼудь. → (eng) he killed the bear with the spear.
    (niv) иф<prn><pers><p3><sg> ӄʼах<n><ins> ӄʼотр<n>+ху<v><tv><ind> .<sent> → (eng) prpers<prn><p3><m><subj><sg> kill<vblex><past> the<det><def><sp> bear<n><sg> with<pr> the<det><def><sg> spear<n><sg> .<sent>
  • (niv) иф энакʼныкроӽ видь. → (eng) he went to another promontory.
    (niv) иф<prn><pers><p3><sg> эна<v><iv>+кʼнык<n><dat> ви<v><iv><ind> .<sent> → (eng) prpers<prn><p3><m><subj><sg> go<vblex><past> to<pr> another<det><ind><sg> promontory<n><sg> .<sent>