Mixe and English/Lexical selection

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mto -> eng

Source: mto Destination: English ie. We're translating from Mixe into English.

pö’öj

mto) Ambitransitive verb stem pö’öj (p186 of 312)

eng) Transitive verb "plant" or intransitive/transitive verb "germinate"


The verb root is the same. pö’öj "plant" is always transitive, whereas pö’öj can be transitive or intransitive. When intransitive, you have:

  • NP PERSON-pö’öj-APL.R-INV-(in)dependent.aspect NP
  • The transitive form doesn't have APL.R or INV morphemes, and isn't followed by a noun phrase.
  • NP PERSON-pö’öj-(IN)DEPENDENT.ASPECT

If there's a personal pronoun, pö’öj translates to "plant".


  • Translates to "plant"<v><tv>
    • ꞌëts känäriu mpuꞌup
      PRO1.SG chili_apple 1A.IND=plant-IND.ICPL.TR
      "I'm planting chili apple."
  • Translates to "germinate"<v>
    • Intransitive
      • xi piꞌk känäriu pöꞌöp
        that DIM chili_apple 3S.IND=germinate-IND.ICPL.INTR
        "That little chili apple germinates."
    • Transitive <tv>
      • vaꞌap mteꞌe pö’öjïxjup, piꞌk känäriu
        ENF=ASRT 2PSR=father 3OP.IND=germinate-APL.R-INV-IND.ICPL.TR
        "Your father germinates the little chili apple."

va'an

mto) Verb stem va'an

eng) Verbs "speak" and "say"

  • Translates to "speak"
    • ꞌùmükeꞌe töꞌk jä yaaꞌytëk vyaꞌany
      then=QUO=FOC one DET man 3A=say-D.ICPL
      "So then a man spoke."
  • Translates to "say"
    • ꞌax paaꞌtyük tseꞌe jä vintsën vyaajny: "ꞌaj ꞌax veꞌemts nꞌit dü moꞌyumda ꞌapëjkin juuꞌ maas müjit."
      now well=QUO ASRT DET owner 3A=say-D.CPL now yes=ASRT 1E=exist-D.ICPL 3E=give-1PL-PL container which more big-VAR
      “Now the boss said: 'Ah, I'd better given them containers which are bigger.'”

If inflected va'an isn't followed by any other words, it should translate to "speak". Otherwise, it should translate to "says".