Okinawan and Miyako/Contrastive Grammar

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Differences between Okinawan and Miyako

  • There are three locatives in Okinawan and one (which is also the dative) in Miyako.
  • There are two allatives in Miyako and one in Okinawan.
  • There is an associative in Okinawan but not in Miyako.
  • Medial verbs appear frequently in Okinawan (indicating simultaneous or sequential verbs), but do not seem to appear in Ikema Miyako (though they do in Irabu).
  • When discussing when things happen (e.g. I went when I was 10), Miyako has a couple of examples that have a word meaning time, but Okinawan does not seem to have anything equivalent.

ryu-mvi tests

  • In Okinawan, there is something that can perhaps be considered a sentence-final particle. There is no equivalent in Miyako.
  • (ryu) しぇんしぇいたあし いくん → (mvi) ならーすびーっみんかい いでぃー
    (ryu) しぇんしぇい<n><pl><all> いくん<v><npst> → (mvi) ならーすびー<n><pl><all> いでぃー<v><npst>
  • There is an accusative in Miyako but not in Okinawan.
  • (ryu) ぴいじゃあや んんじゃん → (mvi) ひんじゃうどぅ みーたい
    (ryu) ぴいじゃあ<n><top> んんじゅん<v><pst> → (mvi) ひんじゃ <n><acc><foc> みー<v><pst>
  • It seems that pronouns (in particular, second person singular) are dropped more often in Miyako than in Okinawan.
  • (ryu) やあが かき → (mvi) かき
    (ryu) やあ<prn><p2><sg><nom> かくん<v><imp> → (mvi) かき<v><imp>
  • In Okinawan, progressive is expressed with a suffix on the verb. In Miyako, a converb plus the continuous expresses the same idea.
  • (ryu) あっちんじゃん → (mvi) あいきー ゆー
    (ryu) あっちゅん<v><prog> → (mvi) あいきー <v><cvb_abs> ゆー<vaux>
  • In Miyako, adjectives must either be nominalized or attached to the front of a noun. In Okinawan, either an adverbializer or a verbializer is added to an adjective stem, depending on whether or not it is to be negated.
  • (ryu) うりや たかはん → (mvi) うらあ たかだいむぬ
    (ryu) うり<prn><dem><p3><sg><top> たかさん<adj><vz> → (mvi) うら<prn><dem><p3><sg><top1> たかだい<adj><nz>

mvi-ryu tests

  • (mvi) ならーすびーっみんかい いでぃー → (ryu) しぇんしぇいたあし いくん
    (mvi) ならーすびー<n><pl><all> いでぃー<v><npst> → (ryu) しぇんしぇい<n><pl><all> いくん<v><npst>
  • (mvi) ひんじゃうどぅ みーたい → (ryu) ぴいじゃあや んんじゃん
    (mvi) ひんじゃ <n><acc><foc> みー<v><pst> → (ryu) ぴいじゃあ<n><top> んんじゅん<v><pst>
  • (mvi) かき → (ryu) やあが かき
    (mvi) かき<v><imp> → (ryu) やあ<prn><p2><sg><nom> かくん<v><imp>
  • (mvi) あいきー ゆー → (ryu) あっきんじゃん
    (mvi) あいきー <v><cvb_abs> ゆー<vaux> → (ryu) あっくん<v><prog>
  • (mvi) うらあ たかだいむぬ → (ryu) うりや たかはん
    (mvi) うら<prn><dem><p3><sg><top1> たかだい<adj><nz> → (ryu) うり<prn><dem><p3><sg><top> たかさん<adj><vz>