Siberian Yupik/Grammar

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Morphophonemics

Stem Termination Patterns

This is for my reference, these are the possible ways that stems can end and will be useful in determining what suffixes can be added to a stem.

  • Stem ending in a single prime vowel (any other than e)
    • nuna<n> "land"
    • pana<n> "spear"
    • siku<n> "ice"
    • qiya<v> "to cry"
    • ifla<v> "to lose or be lost"
  • Stems ending in two prime vowels
    • puu<n> "handle"
    • kii<n> "wound"
    • avii<v> "for one's ears to ring"
    • aghnau<v> "to be a woman"
  • Stems ending with e not preceded by t
    • nege<n> "food"
    • tume<n> "footprint"
    • neghe<v> "to eat"
    • kuuve<v> "to spill"
  • Stems ending in te
    • yughaghte<n> "preacher"
    • riigte<n> "den"
    • ingaghte<v> "to lie down"
  • Stems ending in weak gh
    • qayagh<n> "kayak"
    • aghnagh<n> "woman"
    • qikmigh<n> "dog"
    • No verbs
  • Stems ending in strong fricative
    • savig<n> "knife"
    • kiiw<n> "river"
    • ategh<n> "bone"
    • All verbs ending with fricatives are strong fricatives
    • gavagh<v> "to sleep"
    • mayugh<v> "to climb"

Suffixation Pattern Notation

This is also for my reference, different symbols at the beginning of suffixes indicate in what manner they are attached to the stem. This will be useful for writing code to attach the suffixes.

  • "-" indicates that any final consonant on a stem will be deleted
  • "-w" indicates that a weak stem-final consonant will be deleted, but strong ones will remain. Weak consonants are gh preceded by a single prime vowel (a, i, or u), gh preceded by two vowels or e will remain
  • "+" indicates that all stem-final consonants will be retained
  • ":" indicates that gh will be deleted if occurs between single vowels at the boundary between stem and suffix (but not double vowels)
  • "~f" indicates that a stem-final e will be deleted
  • "~sf" indicates that a semi-final e will be deleted from a stem, this is an e right before a final consonant
  • "~" indicates that a final or semi-final e will be deleted
  • "@" or an arrow indicates a complicated change to a stem final te
  • "+g" indicates g-insertion when a base ends with a double vowel
  • "+t" indicates t-insertion when a base ends with a consonant
  • "+e" indicates e-insertion only after a strong consonant

Other Rules

Other general rules that will be added to the morphological generator

  • "e-insertion" an e is inserted to break up groups of three consonants within a word, or to break up two consonants at the end of a word.
  • ty -> s and tz -> s
  • A prime vowel absorbs a preceding e (after a word has been assembled). For example age/ +u/ gives agu/
  • A prime vowel assimilates a following e (after a word has been assembled). For example ae -> aa and ie -> ii
  • i assimilates adjacent a and u (after a word has been assembled). For example ia -> ii, ai -> ii, and ui -> ii
  • a assimilates adjacent u (after a word has been assembled). For example au -> aa and ua -> aa
    • These rules come to make no vowel clusters with e and no vowel clusters with dissimilar vowels

Noun Endings

Absolutive singular case for nouns

The Ø ending changes noun stem into a common "abslolutive" form used for naming, I couldn't find a good tag for this so I am using <abs>. This can also be referred to as a "citation" form.

  • e# → a
    • nege<n><abs><sg> ↔ nega "food"
    • riigte<n><abs><sg> ↔ riigta "den"
    • sigute<n><abs><sg> ↔ siguta "ear"
    • tume<n><abs><sg> ↔ tuma "footprint"
  • gh# → q
    • qayagh<n><abs><sg> ↔ qayaq "kayak"
    • taqegh<n><abs><sg> ↔ taqeq "vein"
    • uyviinegh<n><abs><sg> ↔ uyviineq "sorcerer"
    • pagunghagh<n><abs><sg> ↔ pagunghaq "crowberry"
    • ighnegh<n><abs><sg> ↔ ighneq "son"
  • g# → k
    • ungag<n><abs><sg> ↔ ungak "whisker"
    • manig<n><abs><sg> ↔ manik "egg"
  • w# → kw
    • kiiw<n><abs><sg> ↔ kiikw "river"
    • aaw<n><abs><sg> ↔ aakw "blood"
  • ghw# → qw
    • qiighw<n><abs><sg> ↔ qiiqw "grey hair"
    • saaghw<n><abs><sg> ↔ saaqw "side"
  • Prime vowel at end of stem remains the same
    • siku<n><abs><sg> ↔ siku "ice"
    • repa<n><abs><sg> ↔ repa "hammer"

Absolutive plural case for unpossessed nouns

Adding absolutive plurals to unpossessed nouns is done by attaching t. The full form of the plural is "~sf-w:t". I will use <abs> for absolutive, <pl> for plural, and <impers> or impersonal for unpossessed. (Page 12 in Practical Grammar)

  • nuna<n><abs><pl><impers> ↔ nunat "lands"
  • tume<n><abs><pl><impers> ↔ tumet "trails"
  • piitute<n><abs><pl><impers> ↔ piitutet "seeds"
  • manig<n><abs><pl><impers> ↔ maniget "eggs"
  • taqegh<n><abs><pl><impers> ↔ taaqghet "veins"
  • sikig<n><abs><pl><impers> ↔ sikiget "squirrel"

Absolutive dual case for unpossessed nouns

Adding absolutive plurals to unpossessed nouns is done by attaching k. The full form of the plural is "~sf-w:k". I will use <abs> for absolutive, <du> for dual, and <impers> or impersonal for unpossessed. (Page 12 in Practical Grammar)

  • anipa<n><abs><du><impers> ↔ anipak "owl"
  • tume<n><abs><du><impers> ↔ tumek "trails"
  • savik<n><abs><du><impers> ↔ savikek "knife"
  • tafsi<n><abs><du><impers> ↔ tafsik "bald"
  • uupa<n><abs><du><impers> ↔ uupak "sea peach"

Ablative-modalis singular case for unpossessed nouns

Adding ablative-modalis singulars to unpossessed nouns is done by attaching meng with the full form "~f-w meng". Ablative-modalis will be shown with <abl> and refers to being 'from' a noun. (Page 16 in Practical Grammar)

  • anigu<n><abl><sg><impers> ↔ anigumeng "from snow"
  • iye<n><abl><sg><impers> ↔ iiymeng "from an eye"
  • angyagh<n><abl><sg><impers> ↔ angyameng "from a boat"
  • sikig<n><abl><sg><impers> ↔ sikigmeng "from a squirrel"
  • nanugh<n><abl><sg><impers> ↔ nanughmeng "from a polar bear"

Absolutive second person possessed singular noun case

Adding second person possessed singular case to a noun is done with "~sf-w(e)n" and second person singular will be shown with <sg2> and possessive will be shown with <pos>. (Page 21 in Practical Grammar)

  • apa<n><abs><sg2><pos> ↔ apan "your grandfather"
  • panig<n><abs><sg2><pos> ↔ panigen "your daughter"
  • puu<n><abs><sg2><pos> ↔ puun "your handle"
  • nuna<n><abs><sg2><pos> ↔ nunan "your land"
  • naayvaq<n><abs><sg2><pos> ↔ naayvaqen "your lake"
  • ateq<n><abs><sg2><pos> ↔ atqen "your name"

Verb Endings

Intransitive-indicatitve 3rd person singular ending for verbs

Intransitive means that only the information concerning the subject is given by the verb ending. The ending for all intransitive-indicatitve is "~f+(+g/+t)u-" and is "~f+(+g/+t)uq" for 3rd person singular meaning "he, she, it." <iv> is used for intransitive and <sg3> is used for 3rd person singular. (Page 15 in Practical Grammar)

  • tuqu<v><iv><sg3> ↔ tuquuq "he/she/it died"
  • tagi<v><iv><sg3> ↔ tagiiq "he/she/it came"
  • qiya<v><iv><sg3> ↔ qiyaaq "he/she/it cried"
  • aqii<v><iv><sg3> ↔ aqiiguq "he/she/it vacationed"
  • aane<v><iv><sg3> ↔ aanuq "he/she/it went out"
  • nenglagh<v><iv><sg3> ↔ nenglaghtuq "he/she/it laughed"

Intransitive-indicatitve 1st person singular ending for verbs

Intransitive means that only the information concerning the subject is given by the verb ending. The ending is "~f+(+g/+t)nga" for 1st person singular meaning "I." <iv> is used for intransitive and <sg1> is used for 1st person singular. (Page 15 in Practical Grammar)

  • aghula<v><iv><sg1> ↔ aghulanga "I dance"
  • esleqe<v><iv><sg1> ↔ esleqtenga "I am full"
  • gaagh<v><iv><sg1> ↔ gaaghtenga "I cook"
  • tuqu<v><iv><sg1> ↔ tuqunga "I die"
  • aqii<v><iv><sg1> ↔ aqiigenga "I vacation"