Siberian Yupik and English/Contrastive Grammar

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Noun Absolutive Cases

Nouns with the absolutive cases translate to "the {noun} in english .

  • (ess) naayghaq → (eng) the mountain
    (ess) naayghaq<n><abs><sg> → (eng) the<det><def><sp> mountain<n><sg>
  • (ess) iqalluq → (eng) the fish
    (ess) iqalluq<n><abs><sg> → (eng) the<det><def><sp> fish<n><sg>

Optative 1st Person Dual Verbs

Verbs tagged with both the optative mood and 1st person dual case get translated to "let's {verb}" in english.

  • (ess) mayultung → (eng) let's go up
    (ess) mayultung<v><iv><du1><opt> → (eng) let<vblex><imp> prpers<prn><obj><p1><mf><pl> go<vblex><pres> up<adv>
  • (ess) qiyaltung → (eng) let's cry
    (ess) qiyaltung<v><iv><du1><opt> → (eng) let<vblex><imp> prpers<prn><obj><p1><mf><pl> cry<vblex><pres>

1st Person Singular Nouns

Nouns tagged with first person singular case translate to "my {noun}" in english.

  • (ess) anngama → (eng) my brother
    (ess) anngama<n><sg1><rel> → (eng) my<det><pos><sp> brother<n><sg>
  • (ess) qayama → (eng) my kayak
    (ess) qayama<n><sg1><rel> → (eng) my<det><pos><sp> kayak<n><sg>

Interrogative Terms

Interrogative terms like the word for "when" in future and past tenses get words added so they translate to "when will" and "when did"

  • (ess) qakun → (eng) when will
    (ess) qakun<adv><int><fut> → (eng) when<adv> will<vblex><pres>
  • (ess) qavngaq → (eng) when did
    (ess) qavngaq<adv><int><past> → (eng) when<adv> do<vblex><past>

Indicative Verb Mood

Indicative verb mood maps to a present tense in english

  • (ess) neghaa → (eng) eats
    (ess) neghaa<v><sg3><ind> → (eng) eat<vblex><pres><p3><sg>
  • (ess) gaaghaa → (eng) cooks
    (ess) gaaghaa<v><sg3><ind> → (eng) cook<vblex><pres><p3><sg>